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Across India by Oliver Optic

He is the viceroy of the crown


India there are not less than twenty-seven languages and dialects in use; and they indicate so many different kinds of people, for we can hardly call them nations, though in many respects they are such. This excellent map behind me, which is worthy of the highest praise as a home-made production, will enable me to give you a better idea of my subject."

"The ingenious artist has colored the different divisions so that you can make them out. The three presidencies are the most notable divisions, and they include all the inferior ones. The Bengal Presidency includes the north-eastern part, from Afghanistan to Burma. The Madras, the southeastern part, with most of the peninsula. The Bombay covers the greater part of the west coast. The Deccan is a portion of the peninsula."

"It would take me three weeks to describe all the divisions of India, and I shall not attempt to do it. It would be better done as you travel over the country. Eighteen of them are Directly governed by the English, and thirteen of them are still under the nominal control of the native princes; but all the latter have a British resident as the adviser of the reigning rajah.

"The English-speaking people of India are a mere bagatelle compared with the enormous population, being only 238,499; but with the army they have been able to hold the country in subjection. The British government takes a fatherly interest

in the native states, and they have been loyal without exception in later years, though the history of India will show that not all of them have always been so."

"Until the year 1858 the government was in the hands of the East India Company, of which you will learn more in the history of India. In 1877 her majesty, the queen, assumed the title of Empress of India, and she is the ruler of the country. The government of the highest resort in the affairs of India is a secretary of state, residing in London. He is a member of the cabinet, and has an under-secretary. He is assisted by a council of ten or fifteen members."

"The executive government, administered in India, is the governor-general in council. He is the viceroy of the crown, and is assisted by six members of the executive council, each of whom has his function in the affairs of the state; and the commander-in-chief of the army is _ex-officio_ a seventh member. This body is really the cabinet of the viceroy. The laws are made by this council, with from six to a dozen members appointed by the viceroy. This is the way the machine is operated.

"The civil service of the government is rendered mainly by Europeans, though the natives are eligible to office as employees. The English system in the appointment of its officials prevails, and all candidates are regularly examined. Those of you who have looked over Bradshaw's 'Guide to India' will find descriptions of the several examinations for various employments."

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