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A Book of Natural History

Polyergus is thoroughly dependent on slaves


FIG 4. APPLE APHIS (_Eriosoma Mali_).]

That the relation between the ants and plant-lice are of very stable kind is proved by the interesting remarks of Mr. Darwin, who "removed all the ants from a group of about a dozen aphides on a dock-plant, and prevented their attendance during several hours." Careful watching showed that the plant-lice after this interval did not excrete the sweet fluid. Mr. Darwin then stroked the plant-lice with a hair, endeavoring thus to imitate the action of the ant's feelers, but not a single plant-louse seemed disposed to emit the secretion. Thereafter a single ant was admitted to their company, the insect, in Mr. Darwin's words, appearing, "by its eager way of running about, to be well aware what a rich flock it had discovered." The ant first stroked one aphis and then another, each insect excreting a drop of the sweet juice "as soon as it felt the antennae;" and "even the quite young aphides behaved in this manner, showing that the action was instinctive, and not the result of experience." If, as Mr. Darwin remarks, it is a convenience for the aphides to have the sweet secretion removed, and that "they do not excrete solely for the food of the ants," the observation does not in any degree lessen the curious nature of the relationship which has become established between the ants and their neighbors, or the interesting features in ant life which have inaugurated and perpetuated the habit.

justify;">Not less remarkable are the "slave-making" instincts of certain species of ants. It may be safely maintained that the slave-making habit forms a subject of more than ordinary interest not merely to naturalists but to metaphysicians given to speculate on the origin and acquirement of the practices of human existence. Pierre Huber, son of the famous entomologist, was the first to describe the slave-making instincts in a species (_Polyergus rufescens_) noted for its predaceous instincts, and subsequent observations have shown that other species participate in these habits. _Polyergus_ is thoroughly dependent on slaves. Without these bonds-men it is difficult to see how the ants could exist. Huber tells us that the workers of this species perform no work save that of capturing slaves. Use and wont, and the habit of depending entirely on their servitors, have produced such changes in the structure of the ants that they are unable to help themselves. The jaws of these ants are not adapted for work; they are carried by their slaves from an old nest to a new one; and, more extraordinary still, they require to be fed by their slaves, even with plenty of food close at hand. Out of thirty of these ants placed by Huber in a box, with some of their larvae and pupae, and a store of honey, fifteen died in less than two days of hunger and of sheer inability to help themselves. When, however, one of their slaves was introduced, the willing servitor "established order, formed a chamber in the earth, gathered together the larvae, extricated several young ants that were ready to quit the condition of pupae, and preserved the life of the remaining Amazons." It must be noted that there are very varying degrees in the dependence of the ant-masters on their slaves. In the recognition of this graduated scale of relationship and dependence, indeed, will be found the clue to the acquirement of this instinct. The horse-ant (_Formica rufa_) will carry off the larvae and pupae of other ants _for food_, and it sometimes happens that some of these captives, spared by their cannibal neighbors, will grow up in the nest of their captor. A well-known ant, the _Formica sanguinea_, found in the South of England, is however, a true slave-making species, but exhibits no such utter dependence on its servitors as does _Polyergus_. The slave-making habit is not only typically developed in the _Sanguineas_, but the bearing of the captives to their masters indicate a degree of relationship and organization such as could hardly be conceived to exist outside human experience. The _Sanguineas_ make periodical excursions, and, like a powerful predatory clan, carry off the pupae or chrysalides of a neighboring species, _F. fusca_. Thus the children of the latter race are born within the nest of their captors in an enslaved condition. As slaves "born and bred," so to speak, they fall at once into the routine of their duties, assist their masters in the work of the nest, and tend and nurse the young of the family. The slaves, curiously enough in this instance, are black in color, whilst the masters are twice the size of the servitors, and are red in color, and that the slaves are true importations is proved by the fact that males and females of the slave species are never developed within the nest of the masters, but only within those of their own colonies. The slaves in this instance rarely leave the nest, the masters foraging for food, and employing their captives in household work, as it were; whilst, when the work of emigration occurs, the masters carry the slaves in their mouths like household goods and chattels, instead of being carried by them, as in the case of _Polyergus_.

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