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The Barnet Book of Photography A Collection of Practical Articles

Hypo sodium thiosulphate 10 oz


use take four parts of oxalate solution and one part of ferrous sulphate solution, pouring the latter into the former and _not vice versa_. In order to obtain slower action with a rather softer image and a slightly browner deposit, the developer may be diluted with an equal volume of water. Slower action, with slightly increased printing contrasts, and clearer shadows, results from an increase in the proportion of bromide.


After development is finished, the dark-coloured reduced silver that forms the image remains mixed with a considerable quantity of semi-opaque, yellowish unaltered silver bromide, which would not only interfere with the printing, but would also gradually darken when exposed to light. The negative must therefore be "fixed" by dissolving out the unaltered silver bromide, and this is accomplished by immersing the plate in a fairly strong solution of sodium thiosulphate (formerly called sodium hyposulphite) commonly known as "hypo." The usual strength of the fixing is as follows:


Hypo (sodium thiosulphate) 10 oz. or 25 parts Water to make up to 40 oz. or 100 parts

A solution of double this strength is, however, not unfrequently used, and acts more rapidly, especially in cold weather.

The developed plate, after being

well rinsed with water, is placed in the fixing bath and allowed to remain in it with frequent rocking until the silver bromide has all been dissolved out of the film. This is ascertained by lifting the plate out of the dish and looking at the back by reflected light, the plate being held in front of something dark. It is not difficult to see whether the silver bromide has all disappeared or not, but in order to ensure complete fixing the plate must not be taken out of the bath as soon as this has happened, but should be left in for a few minutes longer, the dish being rocked so that the dissolved silver salt may diffuse out of the film into the fixing bath.

When removed from the fixing bath the plate should be allowed to drain into the bath for a few moments and should then be washed for five or ten minutes in running water under the tap. It is best to put the plate in a dish standing on the sink and have a piece of flexible indiarubber tubing reaching from the tap to within a couple of inches or so of the top of the dish, so that the water may not splash too much. After washing in this way, the plate is placed in a grooved zinc rack, which is immersed in a tank (preferably of zinc), containing sufficient water to completely cover the plates, and here it remains until the whole batch of plates in hand has been developed and they can all receive their final washing together. The plates stand upright in the rack, and the entrance and exit of the water must be so arranged that the water enters at the bottom and overflows at the top, or, what is perhaps better, enters at the top and is drawn off from the bottom, the waste pipe opening at the bottom of the tank and being bent and carried upwards until its mouth is at the level at which the water is to stand in the tank.

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