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A Catechism of the Steam Engine by Bourne

There should be two hoops round the funnel


_Q._--What is the best mode of constructing the chimney and the parts in connection therewith?

_A._--In sea-going steamers the funnel plates are usually about nine feet long and 3/16ths thick; and where different flues or boilers have their debouch in the same chimney, it is expedient to run division plates up the chimney for a considerable distance, to keep the draughts distinct. The dampers should not be in the chimney but at the end of the boiler flue, so that they may be available for use if the funnel by accident be carried away. The waste steam pipe should be of the same height as the funnel, so as to carry the waste steam clear of it, for if the waste steam strikes the funnel it will wear the iron into holes; and the waste steam pipes should be made at the bottom with a faucet joint, to prevent the working of the funnel, when the vessel rolls, from breaking the pipe at the neck. There should be two hoops round the funnel, for the attachment of the funnel shrouds, instead of one, so that the funnel may not be carried overboard if one hoop breaks, or if the funnel breaks at the upper hoop from the corrosive action of the waste steam, as sometimes happens. The deck over the steam chest should be formed of an iron plate supported by angle iron beams, and there should be a high angle iron cooming round the hole in the deck through which the chimney ascends, to prevent any water upon the deck from leaking down upon the boiler. Around the lower

part of the funnel there should be a sheet iron casing to prevent any inconvenient dispersion of heat in that situation, and another short piece of casing, of a somewhat larger diameter, and riveted to the chimney, should descend over the first casing, so as to prevent the rain or spray which may beat against the chimney from being poured down within the casing upon the top of the boiler. The pipe for conducting away the waste water from the top of the safety valve should lead overboard, and not into the bilge of the ship, as inconvenience arises from the steam occasionally passing through it, if it has its termination in the engine room.

387. _Q._--Are not the chimneys of some vessels made so that they may be lowered when required?

_A._--The chimneys of small river vessels which have to pass under bridges are generally formed with a hinge, so that they may be lowered backward when passing under a bridge; and the chimneys of some screw vessels are made so as to shut up like a spyglass when the fires are put out and the vessel is navigated under sails. In smaller vessels, however, two lengths of chimney suffice; and in that case there is a standing piece on deck, which, however, does not project above the bulwarks.

388. _Q._--Will you explain any further details in the construction of marine boilers which occur to you as important?

_A._--The man-hole and mud-hole doors, unless put on from the outside, like a cylinder cover, with a great number of bolts, should be put on from the inside with cross bars on the outside, and the bolts should be strong, and have coarse threads and square nuts, so that the threads may not be overrun, nor the nuts become round, by the unskilful manipulations of the firemen, by whom these doors are removed or replaced. It is very expedient that sufficient space should be left between the furnace and the tubes in all tubular boilers to permit a boy to go in to clear away any scale that may have formed, and to hold on the rivets in the event of repair being wanted; and it is also expedient that a vertical row of tubes should be left out opposite to each water space to allow the ascent of the steam and descent of the water, as it has been found that the removal of the tubes in that position, even in a boiler with deficient heating surface, has increased the production of steam, and diminished the consumption of fuel. The tubes should all be kept in the same vertical line, so as to permit the introduction of an instrument to scrape them; but they may be zig-zagged in the horizontal line, whereby a greater strength of metal will be obtained around the holes in the tube plates, and the tubes should not be placed too close together, else their heating efficacy will be impaired.

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