A Catechism of the Steam Engine by Bourne

*Supposing the gudgeon to be square*

343.

_A._--The diameter of the piston rod is usually made 1/10th of the diameter of the cylinder, or the sectional area of the piston rod is 1/100th of the area of the cylinder. This proportion, however, is not applicable to locomotive, or even fast moving marine engines. In locomotive engines the piston rod is made 1/7th of the diameter of the cylinder, and it is obvious that where the pressure on the piston is great, the piston rod must be larger than when the pressure on the piston is small.

344. _Q._--What are the proper dimensions of the main links of a land beam engine?

_A._--The sectional area of the main links in land beam engines is 1/113th of the area of the cylinder, and the length of the main links is usually half the length of the stroke.

345. _Q._--What are the dimensions of the connecting rod of a land engine?

_A._--In land engines the connecting rod is usually of cast iron with a cruciform section: the breadth across the arms of the cross is about 1/20th of the length of the rod, the sectional area at the centre 1/28th of the area of the cylinder, and at the ends 1/35th of the area of the cylinder: the length of the rod is usually 3-1/2 times the length of the stroke. It is preferable, however, to make the connecting rod of malleable iron, and then

346. _Q._--What was Mr. Watt's rule for the connecting rod?

_A._--Some of his connecting rods were of iron and some of wood. To determine the thickness when of wood, multiply the square of the diameter of the cylinder in inches by the length of the stroke in feet, and divide the product by 24. Extract the fourth root of the quotient, which is the thickness in inches. For iron the rule is the same, only the divisor was 57.6 instead of 24.

347. _Q._--What are the dimensions of the end studs of a land engine beam?

_A._--In low pressure engines the diameter of the end studs of the engine beam are usually made 1/9th of the diameter of the cylinder when of cast iron, and 1/10th when of wrought iron, which gives a load with low steam of about 500 lbs. per circular inch of transverse section; but a larger size is preferable, as with large bearings the brasses do not wear so rapidly and the straps are not so likely to be burst by the bearings becoming oval. These sizes, as also those which immediately follow, suppose the pressure on the piston to be 18 lbs. per circular inch.

348. _Q._--How is the strength of a cast iron gudgeon computed?

_A._--To find the proper size of a cast iron gudgeon adapted to sustain any given weight:--multiply the weight in lbs. by the intended length of bearing expressed in terms of the diameter; divide the product by 500, and extract the square root of the quotient, which is the diameter in inches.

349. _Q._--What was Mr. Watt's rule for the strength of gudgeons?

_A._--Supposing the gudgeon to be square, then, to ascertain the thickness, multiply the weight resting on the gudgeon by the distance between the trunnions, and divide the product by 333. Extract the cube root of the quotient, which is the thickness in inches.