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Contemporary Socialism by John Rae

CONTEMPORARY SOCIALISM

BY

JOHN RAE, M.A.

_SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED_

New York CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 1891

PREFACE.

In the present edition the original work has not only been carefully revised, but very considerably enlarged. The chapters on "The Progress and Present Position of Socialism" and "Russian Nihilism" contain a few sentences retained from the first edition, but otherwise they are entirely new--the former necessarily so on account of the nature of its subject, and the latter on account of the importance of the fresh materials that have been recently given to the world. A new chapter has been added on "Anarchism," and another, of considerable extent, on "State Socialism." No apology is required for the length of the latter, for though State socialism is only a growth of yesterday, it has already spread everywhere, and if it is not superseding socialism proper, it is certainly eclipsing it in practical importance, and to some extent even modifying it in character. Revolutionary socialism, growing more opportunist of late years, seems losing much of its old phrenzy, and getting domesticated into a shifty State socialism, fighting a parliamentary battle for minor, though still probably mischievous, changes within the lines of existing society, instead of the old war _a l'outrance_ against existing society in whatever shape or form. Anyhow the socialistic controversy in the immediate future will evidently be fought along the lines of State socialism. It is there the hostile parties meet, and it is well therefore to get, if we can, some more exact knowledge of the ground. Some of the other chapters in the work have been altered here and there for the purpose of bringing their matter, where necessary, down to date, or embodying fresh illustrative evidence, or occasionally of making the exposition itself more lucid and effective; but it is unnecessary to specify these alterations in detail.

_April, 1891._

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY.

Revival of Socialism, 1--Extinction of Old Types, 2--Main Surviving Type, Social Democracy, 3--Its Two Varieties, Socialist and Anarchist, 4--Its Relations to Political Democracy, 4--Definition of Socialism, 5--Cairnes on Mill's Profession of Socialism, 6--Ruling Characteristic common to Old and New Socialism, 9--State Socialism, 11--Conservative Socialism, 13--The Minimum of Socialism, 14--First Rise of Social Democracy, 15--Rousseau, 16--Baboeuf, 17--Connection of Socialism with Democracy, 18--The Danger to Free Institutions, 24--Necessity and Probability of Wider Diffusion of Property, 25.

CHAPTER II.

THE PROGRESS AND PRESENT POSITION OF SOCIALISM.

National Conditions Favourable to Socialism, 30--Germany, 30--Progress of Socialist Vote, 33--Action of Socialist Party in Reichstag, 34--Party Programme, 38--Halle Congress of 1891, 40--France, 45--Anarchists, 47--Socialist Revolutionary Party, 48--Possibilists, 50--Blanquists, 53--The Socialist Group in the Chamber, 53--Austria, 54--Italy, 57--Spain, 60--Portugal, 65--Norway and Sweden, 66--Denmark, 67--Belgium, 70--Holland, 72--Switzerland, 73--United States, 77--Boston Anarchists, 77--Mr. Henry George, 78--Mr. Bellamy's Nationalism, 79--Anarchists, 80--Socialistic Labour Party, 81--Knights of Labor, 82--England, 83--Social Democrats, 84--Anarchists, 86--Christian Socialists, 87--Fabians, 88--Land Nationalization, 89--Scotland, 90--Australia, 90.


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