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Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 11, Slice 8 "Germany" to "Gibson, William"

The Bidayat ul Hidaya Bulaq


Sixty-nine works are ascribed to Ghazali (cf. C. Brockelmann's _Gesch. d. arabischen Litteratur_, i. 421-426, Weimar, 1898). The most important of those which have been published are: a treatise on eschatology called _Ad-durra ul-fakhira_ ("The precious pearl"), ed. L. Gautier (Geneva, 1878); the great work, _Ihya ul-`Ulum_ ("Revival of the sciences") (Bulaq, 1872; Cairo, 1889); see a commentary by al-Murtada called the Ithaf, published in 13 vols. at Fez, 1885-1887, and in 10 vols. at Cairo, 1893; the _Bidayat ul-Hidaya_ (Bulaq, 1870, and often at Cairo); a compendium of ethics, _Mizan ul-`Amal_, translated into Hebrew, ed. J. Goldenthal (Paris, 1839); a more popular treatise on ethics, the _Kimiya us-Sa`ada_, published at Lucknow, Bombay and Constantinople, ed. H. A. Homes as _The Alchemy of Happiness_ (Albany, N.Y., 1873); the ethical work _O Child_, ed. by Hammer-Purgstall in Arabic and German (Vienna, 1838); the _Destruction of Philosophers_ (_Tahafut ul-Falasifa_) (Cairo, 1885, and Bombay, 1887). Of this work a French translation was begun by Carra de Vaux in _Museon_, vol. xviii. (1899); the _Maqasid ul-Falasifa_, of which the first part on logic was translated into Latin by Dom. Gundisalvi (Venice, 1506), ed. with notes by G. Beer (Leiden, 1888); the _Kitab ul-Munqid_, giving an account of the changes in his philosophical ideas, ed. by F. A. Schmolders in his _Essai sur les ecoles philosophiques chez les Arabes_ (Paris, 1842), also printed at Constantinople, 1876, and translated into French by Barbier de Meynard in the _Journal asiatique_ (1877, i. 1-93); answers to questions asked of him ed. in Arabic and Hebrew, with German translation and notes by H. Malter (Frankfort, 1896); Eng. trans., _Confessions of al-Ghazzali_, by Claud Field (1909).

For Ghazali's life see McG. de Slane's translation of Ibn Khallikan, ii. 621 ff.; R. Gosche's _Uber Ghazzali's Leben und Werke_ (Berlin, 1859); D. B. Macdonald's "Life of al-Ghazzali," in _Journal of American Oriental Society_, vol. xx. (1899), and Carra de Vaux's _Gazali_ (Paris, 1902); see ARABIAN PHILOSOPHY. (G. W. T.)

GHAZI (an Arabic word, from _ghaza_, to fight), the name given to Mahommedans who have vowed to exterminate unbelievers by the sword. It is also used as a title of honour, generally translated "the Victorious," in the Ottoman empire for military officers of high rank, who have distinguished themselves in the field against non-Moslem enemies; thus it was conferred on Osman Pasha after his famous defence of Plevna.

GHAZIABAD, a town of British India in Meerut district of the United Provinces, 12 m. from Delhi and 28 m. from Meerut. Pop. (1901) 11,275. The town was founded in 1740 by Ghazi-ud-din, son of Azaf Jah, first nizam of the Deccan, and takes its name from its founder. It has considerably risen in importance as the point of junction of the East Indian, the North-Western and the Oudh & Rohilkhand railway systems. The town has a trade in grain and hides.

GHAZIPUR, a town and district of British India, in the Benares division of the United Provinces. The town stands on the left bank of the Ganges, 44 m. E. of Benares. It is the headquarters of the government opium department, where all the opium from the United Provinces is collected and manufactured under a monopoly. There are also scent distilleries, using the produce of the rose-gardens in the vicinity. Lord Cornwallis, governor-general of India, died at Ghazipur in 1805, and a domed monument and marble statue (by Flaxman) are erected over his grave. Pop. (1901) 39,429.


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