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A History of England Principally in the Seventeent

Ke treis parlemens seient par an


Estates had often been obliged to contend against the King and the Roman See at the same time; now the King was allied with them against the Papacy. Now that the Parliamentary constitution was established in its first stage, it is clear how much the union of the Crown and the Estates in opposition to external influence had contributed to it. It was destined however shortly to undergo yet other tests.


[37] Matthew Paris, Historia Major ann. 1253, p. 750.

[38] In Henr. Knyghton, 2445. According to Matthew Paris they swore, not to let themselves be held back by anything--'quin regnum, in quo sunt nati homines geniales et eorum progenitores, ab ingenerosis et alienigenis emundarent.'

[39] 'Les XXIV ont ordene, ke treis parlemens seient par an,--a ces treis parlemens vendrunt les cunseillers le rei eslus,--ke le commun eslise 12 prodes hommes ke vendrunt as parlemens--pur treter de besoigne le rei et del reaume.' On the explanation of this passage, the 'Report on the dignity of a peer' 102 contains matter wellweighed on all sides.

[40] Letter of Clement IV to Louis IX, in Rainaldus, 1265, p. 167. 'Quid putas--per talia machinamenta quaeri? Nisi ut de regno illo regium nomen aboleatur omnino: nisi ut Christianus populus a devotione matris ecclesiae et observantia fidei orthodoxae avertatur.'

justify;">[41] 'Convocatis discretioribus regni tam ex majoribus quam minoribus.' Statute of Marleberge, 1267.

[42] 'Nostrae voluntatis fuit ut de bonis terrae ipsa terra conservaretur.' In Knyghton, ii, 2501.

[43] Statutum de tallagio non concedendo, or Nova additio cartarum; in Hemingburgh, articuli inserti in magna charta.

[44] 'Carta confirmationis regis Edwardi I,' in the collection of charters prefixed to the collection of the Statutes in the 'Statutes of the Realm,' p. 37.

[45] 'Avuns graunte--as Arceevesques etc. e as Countes--e a toute la communaute de la terre que mes pur nule busoigne tieu manere des aydes mises ne prises de nre Roiaume ne prendrums fors ke par commun assent de tout le Roiaume e a commun profist de meismes le Roiaume, sauve les auncienes aydes e prises due e acoustumees.' The Articulus insertus in Magna Charta, according to the other statements, runs, 'nullum Tallagium vel auxilium imponatur seu levetur sine voluntate atque assensu communi Archiepiscoporum Episcoporum et aliorum liberorum hominum in regno nostro.'

[46] Hemingburgh: eo quod confirmaverat eas in terra aliena.

[47] Matthew of Westminster, 433. 'Procrastinatis quampluribus diebus demum videns rex quod non desisterent ab inceptis nec adquiescerent sibi in necessitatibus suis, respondit se esse paratum concedere et ratificare petita.'

[48] At Lincoln, 21 Feb. 1301. In Rymer, Rainaldus, Spondanus.

[49] Report 183; Hallam, Additional Notes 332.

[50] Revocatio novarum ordinationum, 1323, 29 May, Statutes of the Realm I. 189, 'les choses, qui serount a establir--soient tretees accordees et establies en parlaments par notre Sr. le Roi et par lassent des Prelats Countes et Barouns et la communalte du roialme.'

[51] Speech of W. Shareshall 1351, Parliamentary History (1762) i. 295.

[52] We know the letter of the Duke of Guelders, in which he praised equally 'lanae commoda,--divitias in comparatione ad alios reges centuplas,' and the 'probitas militaris, arcuum asperitas,' in Twysden ii. 2739.

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