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A History of the Nineteenth Century, Year by Year

Dom Miguel continued his fight for the throne


Portuguese civil war]

[Sidenote: Civil war in Spain]

[Sidenote: Revolt in Cuba]

Lord Napier's namesake, Captain Charles Napier, had won fresh laurels in the Portuguese war for the succession to the throne. In command of the fleet fitted out by Dom Pedro of Brazil he attacked and annihilated Dom Miguel's navy off St. Vincent. Napier's colleague, Villa Flor, landed his forces and marched on Lisbon. The resistance of Dom Miguel's forces was overcome. On July 28, Dom Pedro was able to enter Lisbon as a victor. Still the struggle went on. Among those who linked themselves with Dom Miguel was Don Carlos, the rebellious pretender to the throne of Spain. Upon the death of King Ferdinand VII., in September, and the coronation of the Infanta Isabella as Queen of Spain under a regency, Don Carlos was proclaimed king by his followers. The Basque provinces declared in his favor. Civil war began. Had Don Carlos crossed the border at once he might have captured his crown. Unfortunately for his cause, he lingered in Portugal until the end of the year. The regency of Spain, in the face of this embarrassment at home, was called upon to proceed energetically against a revolutionary rising in Cuba under the leadership of Manuel Quesada. Henceforth the Pearl of the Antilles was no longer the "ever faithful Isle."


style="text-align: justify;"> [Sidenote: Death of Pedro IV.]

[Sidenote: Quadruple alliance]

[Sidenote: Foreign intervention in Portugal]

[Sidenote: Pretenders withdraw]

The death of Pedro IV., the Emperor of Brazil and claimant king of Portugal, made matters worse in Portugal. Diego Antonio Fergio set himself up as Regent. Monasteries were suppressed and the Society of Jesus was expelled from the kingdom. Dom Miguel continued his fight for the throne. Don Carlos, the Spanish pretender, remained with him. The situation grew so threatening for the established governments in Portugal and Spain that they, too, combined for mutual defence. Queen-Regent Christina of Spain found that she would have to rely for support upon the Spanish Liberals. Martinez de la Rosa was made Prime Minister. His first measure was to give his country a constitution, which was ratified, on April 10, by royal statute. He then entered into negotiations with Portugal as well as with England and France to crush the two rebellious pretenders by a combined effort. On April 22, a fourfold treaty was signed at London by the terms of which the Spanish and Portuguese Governments undertook to proceed conjointly against Miguel and Carlos. England promised to co-operate with her fleet. France agreed to send an army into the Peninsula if called upon. Before the treaty had been ratified even by the English Parliament and French Chambers, General Rodil marched a Spanish division into Portugal. Dom Miguel's forces were driven before him. The threatening demonstrations of British cruisers and the simultaneous publication of the terms of the quadruple alliance in Lisbon and Madrid cowed the revolutionists. On May 22, Dom Miguel yielded. On the promise of a handsome pension, he renounced his rights to the crown of Braganza and agreed to leave Portugal forever. Don Carlos, while declining thus to sell his rights, took refuge with the British admiral on his flagship and was taken to London.

[Sidenote: Return of Don Carlos]

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