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A History of the Nineteenth Century, Year by Year

The war against Abd el Kader was pushed forward


Latin-American affairs]

In Central America, General Morazan invaded Costa Rica to re-establish by force the federation of the Central American States. At first he was welcomed by the population and recognized as President of Costa Rica. But later, as the guerilla war dragged itself out, the opposition gained ground. Jose Maria Alfaro was recognized as President. In South America, General Rosas made another attempt to subject Montevideo. Gold was discovered in Uruguay. In the West Indies, the restoration of peace in Cuba was followed by educational, far-reaching reforms. Another revolution in Hayti provoked French interference.

[Sidenote: French-Algerian campaign]

The French squadron that had made demonstrations in the Caribbean Sea presently descended upon the Marqueso Islands in the southern Pacific. The islands were annexed to France. In Africa, the war against Abd-el-Kader was pushed forward. The Arabs attacked Mostaganem and Arzee and lured Yussuf, the commander of the new French corps of native Spahis, into an ambush. General Valle, with a division of 9,000 men, drove Abd-el-Kader from an intrenched pass between Medah and Muzaia; but the French lost heavily. The Algerian war during this year alone cost 12,000 lives and 50,000,000 francs. Valle was superseded by Bugeaud.

The French general elections had just resulted in favor of the government,

when, on July 13, the Duke of Orleans was killed by a fall from his carriage. After this event the Chambers fixed the succession to the throne upon the Duke of Nemours, until the children of the Duke of Orleans should be of age.

[Sidenote: Louis Blanc]

[Sidenote: Proudhon]

[Sidenote: Eugene Sue]

[Sidenote: "Stendhal"]

By this time the socialistic theories of Saint Simon and Fourier were exploited still further by Louis Blanc and Proudhon. Blanc's writings had an immense vogue among the workmen of Paris. This was especially true of his "Organisation du Travail," published this year, wherein he proclaimed the opportunity to work as a social right. Proudhon carried Etienne Cadet's "Icarian" theories so far that in his famous book, "What is Property?" after describing the conditions under which property is held according to the Napoleonic Code, he delivered the categorical dictum, "If this be property, then property is theft." Other popular books of the day were Eugene Sue's "The Mysteries of Paris," "Le Morne au Diable," and Georges Sand's famous novel "Consuelo." Marie Henri Beyle, known better under his pseudonym, "Stendhal," died during this year. As a novelist he was the precursor of the naturalistic school of romance in France, and was later acknowledged as such by Balzac, Flaubert and Emile Zola. His powers of prose were most ably demonstrated in the novel "Rouge et Noir," treating of the adventures of a worldly Abbe.

[Sidenote: Cherubini]

Another notable figure in Paris passed away with Luigi Cherubini, the great Italian composer. Cherubini, many of whose works were brought out during the previous century was so popular by the beginning of the Nineteenth Century, that he was esteemed above Beethoven. A Viennese critic who ventured to say that Beethoven's "Fidelio" was of equal merit with Cherubini's "Fanisca" was laughed to scorn. Cherubini's best opera, "The Water Carrier," was brought out in Paris and London in 1800 and 1801. Owing to his disregard of Napoleon's musical opinions, Cherubini found himself out of favor throughout the First Empire in France. He retired to the estate of his friend, Prince de Chimay, and would have given up music but for the latter's request to write a Mass for his chapel. The result was the celebrated three-part Mass in F, which proved such a success that Cherubini thenceforward devoted himself to sacred music. After Napoleon's fall he received an appointment at the Paris Conservatory of Music, from the directorship of which he did not retire until 1841. Cherubini's voluminous compositions reveal him as one of the great modern masters of counterpoint. His great skill and erudition show to the best advantage in his sacred music.

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