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A History of the Nineteenth Century, Year by Year

Sidenote Corot This year Jean Baptiste Corot


[Sidenote:

Achievements in Science and Letter]

Another achievement of far-reaching consequences was Captain Henry Bessemer's process for manufacturing steel. He took out a patent for his invention of forcing air through liquid molten iron. Other inventions of interest were Brewster's prismatic stereoscope, Garcia's laryngoscope (a mirror for examining the throat), and Drummond's light, patented by Captain Thomas Drummond. Captain Robert Le Mesurier M'Clure of the "Investigator" received the L5,000 prize for the discovery of the Northwest Passage and was knighted. Famous English books of the year were Robert Browning's "Men and Women," Charles Kingsley's "Westward Ho!" and George Henry Lewes' "Life of Goethe."

[Sidenote: Death of Charlotte Bronte]

Charlotte Bronte, the novelist, died on the last day of March. She was born in 1824, the daughter of the Rev. Patrick Bronte of Haworth in Yorkshire. In June, 1854, she married her father's curate, the Rev. Archer Bell Nicholls. Under the pseudonym of Currer Bell she published several novels, in which she displayed great power in the delineation of character. The most important of these were "Shirley," "Villette" and the celebrated "Jane Eyre." At the same time her sister, Emily Jane, who published under the name of Ellis Bell, won fame by her novel "Wuthering Heights." She died six years earlier.

[Sidenote:

Corot]

This year Jean-Baptiste Corot, the famous French painter of "Paysage Intime," and follower and modifier of the new realistic schools under the lead of Courbet, exhibited his "Souvenir de Marcoussy," which was purchased later by Napoleon III.

[Sidenote: Death of Rogers]

Samuel Rogers, the English poet, wit and patron of art, died, on December 18, in his ninety-second year. The son of a banker, he travelled extensively while a young man, and applied himself to the study of art and letters. His first published essays and poetry were an "Ode to Superstition" and "The Pleasures of Memory." The death of his father in 1793 left him in the possession of an ample fortune, and he lost no time in retiring from active business. In 1798 he published "The Epistle to a Friend" and other poems. During the early part of the Nineteenth Century, Rogers figured in the foremost rank of the literary and artistic society in London, where he went by the name of "The Banker Bard of St. James's Place." In 1812 he brought out an epic on "The Voyage of Columbus," which met with indifferent success. This was followed by "Jacqueline" and "Human Life." His last and largest publication was his descriptive poem "Italy," brought out in 1822. Rogers devoted the rest of his literary life to the publication of exquisitely illustrated editions of his "Italy" and his "Poems." Shortly after Rogers' death a collection of his witty sayings was published under the title of "Table Talk."

[Sidenote: Horace Vernet]

[Sidenote: His early works]

[Sidenote: Vernet's earnings]

[Sidenote: Highest artistic honors]

At the Parisian Art Exposition of this year, Horace Vernet, the celebrated French battle painter, had a Salon devoted entirely to his works. The walls were covered by his immense canvases. At this time Vernet was the most successful of French artists. Born at the Louvre at the outbreak of the French Revolution, Vernet in his early career was identified with the events of that epoch. For the Duke of Orleans he painted his celebrated series of the four revolutionary battles, "Jemmapes, Hanau, Montmirail,


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