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A History of the Nineteenth Century, Year by Year

The French and English representatives supported Cavour


Italy benefited]

Cavour had won his first point. At the Conference of Paris he took his place as a representative of Sardinia by right of an alliance with the other great Powers. Then it was seen that every Italian soldier who had fallen on the Tchernaya, or who had wasted away in the fever-stricken camps, had died indeed for the honor of Italy among the nations of the world. At the close of the Conference Cavour made a plain statement concerning the misgovernment of southern and central Italy and the evils of the Austrian occupation. When Count Buol von Schauenstein protested, the French and English representatives supported Cavour. The effect of these representations was such that there was a sudden change in Austria's restrictive measures hitherto inflicted upon her Italian dominions. Old Marshal Radetzky, the man of the sword, was retired. The sequestrated Italian estates were returned to their owners. Emperor Francis Joseph came in person to Milan to proclaim a general amnesty. His brother Maximilian, a prince of liberal tendencies, came with his young bride Charlotte to undo the harsh measures of the military government. Maximilian's liberal policy proved too much for the narrow spirit of the Ministry at home.

[Sidenote: After effects in England]

[Sidenote: Friction with America]

[Sidenote: Australian Home Rule]

justify;">One of the first results of the Crimean war was the threatened suspension of the Bank of England. In November, it was found that the reserve funds of the Bank had shrunk to L1,462,153, while the deposits that might at any moment be drawn out aggregated L18,248,003. In these circumstances, a special bill of Parliament authorized a new issue of paper notes for L180,000 more than the law permitted. Furthermore, the war with Russia left behind it a dispute between the governments of Great Britain and of the United States. Under the provisions of a recent foreign enlistment bill in England, American citizens had been induced to enter the British military service. The American Government complained that the practice was in violation of international law. The point was practically conceded by the English Government, which at once put a stop to the enlistment of American citizens and tendered an apology to the government of the United States. The situation was aggravated by the fact that one of the attaches of the American Legation in London at this very time was refused admission to a diplomatic levee at the Court of St. James because he did not appear in court dress. The British Minister at Washington received his passports. In Australia, the first Home Rule Parliament had been opened at Sydney by Sir William Denison. The popular elections were conducted under the famous ballot system which was afterward adopted in other parts of the world.

[Sidenote: Singular suicidal mania]

In South Africa, the province of Natal was separated from Cape Colony, and became an independent Crown Colony with a constitution of its own. The land of the Basutos, no longer under British protectorate, suffered greatly from hostile incursions and cattle raids from the Boers. During the summer the Kaffirs fell victims to a fatal delusion. Their prophet Amaxosa foretold the resurrection of all their dead heroes and warriors, on condition that they themselves should put an end to their lives. In all, some 50,000 Kaffirs committed suicide. Emigrants from Cape Colony occupied the Kaffir lands, which had become depopulated.

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