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A History of the Nineteenth Century, Year by Year

And in the secluded regions of Bundelkund


[Sidenote:

Rose's brilliant campaign]

[Sidenote: King of Delhi transported]

The subsequent history of the Sepoy revolt is largely a recital of military operations for the dispossession of the rebels and the restoration of British supremacy. Sir Colin Campbell, now Lord Clyde, undertook a general and successful campaign against the rebels of Oude and Rohlikund, and Sir James Outram drove them out of Lucknow, and re-established British sovereignty in the capital of Oude. At the same time a column under Sir Hugh Rose and another under General Whitlock did a similar work in Central India and Bundelkund. Rose's campaign was peculiarly difficult. It was carried out amid the jungles and ravines of the Vindhya Mountains, and in the secluded regions of Bundelkund. He fought battles against baffling odds, and captured the stronghold of Jhansi. He then marched against Tantia Topi, who had an army of 40,000 near Kalpi, which he routed and scattered. Having brought his campaign to a close, he congratulated his troops on having marched a thousand miles, defeated and dispersed the enemy, and captured a hundred guns. The old King of Delhi was put on trial, convicted and sentenced to transportation. He was sent to the Cape of Good Hope, but the colonists there refused to receive him. The last of the line of the Great Moguls of India had to go begging for a prison.

Toward the close of the year, when the

Indian mutiny appeared to have spent its force, Lord Elgin returned from Calcutta to Hong Kong. In the meanwhile the English, French and American Governments had exchanged notes on the subject of Chinese outrages against Christians. Louis Napoleon was found to be in hearty accord with England's desire to make an example of China. Baron Gros was sent to China charged with a mission similar to that of Lord Elgin. The United States declined to join in active measures against China.

[Sidenote: Buchanan, American President]

In the United States of America, James Buchanan had become President at sixty-six years of age. He had served as a member of Congress from 1821 to 1831; then as Minister to Russia from 1832 to 1834; United States Senator from 1834 to 1845; Secretary of State under Polk from 1845 to 1849, and Minister to Great Britain from 1853 to 1856.

[Sidenote: Dred Scott case]

Buchanan's first message repeated the assurance that the discussion of slavery had come to an end. The clergy were found fault with for fomenting the disturbances. The President declared in favor of the admission of Kansas with a Constitution agreeable to the majority of the settlers. He also referred to an impending decision of the Supreme Court with which he had been acquainted and asked acquiescence in it. This was Judge Taney's decision in the Dred Scott case, rendered two days after Buchanan's inauguration. An action had been begun in the Circuit Court in Missouri by Scott, a negro, for the freedom of himself and children. He claimed that he had been removed by his master in 1834 to Illinois, a free State, and afterward taken into territory north of the compromise line. Sanford, his master, replied that Scott was not a citizen of Missouri, and could not bring an action, and that he and his children were Sanford's slaves. The lower courts differed, and the case was twice argued.


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