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A History of Sea Power by Stevens and Westcott

The russian navy in the russo japanese war


REFERENCES

style="text-align: justify;">_Spanish-American War_

NOTES ON THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR (a series of publications issued by the Office of Naval Intelligence, U. S. Navy Department, 1900). SAMPSON-SCHLEY OFFICIAL COMMUNICATIONS TO THE U. S. SENATE, Gov't Printing Office, 1899. THE DOWNFALL OF SPAIN, H. W. Wilson, 1900. WITH SAMPSON THROUGH THE WAR, W. A. M. Goode, 1899. A HISTORY OF THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR, R. H. Tetherington, 1900.

_Russo-Japanese War_

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OF THE CHINESE EMPIRE, 3 vols., H. B. Morse, 1918. THE BATTLE OF TSUSHIMA (1906), RASPLATA (1910), Captain Vladimir Semenoff. JAPANESE OFFICIAL HISTORY, translated in U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings, July-August, September-October, 1914. THE SHIP OF THE LINE IN BATTLE, Admiral Reginald Custance, 1912. THE RUSSIAN NAVY IN THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR, Captain N. Klado, 1905. OFFICIAL BRITISH HISTORY OF THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR, 3 vols., 1910. THE AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE, Debaters' Handbook Series, N. Y., 1916 (with bibliography).

CHAPTER XVI

THE WORLD WAR: THE FIRST YEAR (1914-1915)

The Russo-Japanese war greatly weakened Russia's position in Europe, and left the Dual Alliance of France and Russia overweighted by the military strength of the Teutonic Empires,

Germany and Austria, whether or not Italy should adhere to the Triple Alliance with these nations. To Great Britain, such a disturbance of the European balance was ever a matter of grave concern, and an abandonment of her policy of isolation was in this instance virtually forced upon her by Germany's rivalry in her own special sphere of commerce and sea power.

The disturbing effect of Germany's naval growth during the two decades prior to 1914 affords in fact an excellent illustration of the influence of naval strength in peace as well as in war. Under Bismarck Germany had pushed vigorously though tardily into the colonial field, securing vast areas of rather doubtful value in East and West Africa, and the Bismarck Archipelago, Marshall Islands, and part of New Guinea in the Pacific. With the accession of William II in 1888 and the dropping of the pilot, Bismarck, two years later, she embarked definitely upon her quest for world power. The young Kaiser read eagerly Mahan's _Influence of Sea Power Upon History_ (1890), distributed it among the ships of his still embryonic navy, and fed his ambition on the doctrines of this epoch-making work.

Naval development found further stimulus and justification in the rapid economic growth of Germany. In 1912 her industrial production attained a value of three billion dollars, as compared with slightly over four billion for England and seven billion for the United States. Since 1893 her merchant marine had tripled in size and taken second place to that of England with a total of over five million tons. During the same period she surpassed France and the United States in volume of foreign commerce, and in this respect also reached a position second to Great Britain, with a more rapid rate of increase. An emigration of 220,000 a year in the early eighties was cut down to 22,000 in 1900.[1] To assure markets for her manufactures, and continued growth in population and industry, Germany felt that she must strive to extend her political power.


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