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A Handbook of the English Language by Latham

Godwulf Geating Ida was the son of Eoppa


The

word _sweetheart_ is a derived word of this sort, rather than a compound word; since in Old High German and Middle High German, we have the corresponding form _liebhart_. Now the form for _heart_ is in German not _hart_, but _herz_.

Words like _braggadocio_, _trombone_, _balloon_, being words of foreign origin, prove nothing as to the further existence of augmentative forms in English.

s. 272.--_Patronymics._--In the Greek language the notion of _lineal descent_, in other words, the relation of the son to the father, is expressed by a particular termination; as [Greek: Peleus] (_Peleus_), [Greek: Peleides] (_Peleidaes_), the son of Peleus. It is very evident that this mode of expression is very different from either the English form _Johnson_ = _the son of John_, or the Gaelic _MacDonald_ = _the son of Donald_. In these last-named words, the words _son_ and _Mac_ mean the same thing; so that _Johnson_ and _MacDonald_ are not _derived_ but _compound_ words. This Greek way of expressing descent is peculiar, and the words wherein it occurs are classed together by the peculiar name _patronymic_; from _pataer_ = _a father_, and _onoma_ = _a name_.

Is there anything in English corresponding to the Greek patronymics?

Not in the _present_ English? There was, however, in the Anglo-Saxon.

In the Anglo-Saxon, the termination

-ing is as truly patronymic as [Greek: -ides] in Greek. In the Bible-translation the _son of Elisha_ is called _Elising_. In the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle occur such genealogies as the following:--_Ida waes Eopping_, _Eoppa Esing_, _Esa Inging_, _Inga Angenviting_, _Angenvit Alocing_, _Aloc Beonocing_, _Beonoc Branding_, _Brand Baeldaeging_, _Baeldaeg V['o]dening_, _V['o]den Fridhowulfing_, _Fridhowulf Finning_, _Finn Godwulfing_, _Godwulf Geating_ = Ida was the son of Eoppa, Eoppa of Esa, Esa of Inga, Inga of Angenvit, Angenvit of Aloc, Aloc of Beonoc, Beonoc of Brand, Brand of Baeldaeg, Baeldaeg of Woden, Woden of Fridhowulf, Fridhowulf of Finn, Finn of Godwulf, Godwulf of Geat.--In Greek, [Greek: Ida en Eoppeides, Eoppa Eseides, Esa Ingeides, Inga Angenphiteides], &c. In the plural number these forms denote the _race of_; as _Scyldingas_ = _the Scyldings_, or the race of _Scyld_, &c. Edgar Atheling means Edgar of the race of the nobles.

* * * * *

CHAPTER XVI.

GENTILE FORMS.

s. 273. The only word in the present English that requires explanation is the name of the principality _Wales_.

1. The form is _plural_, however much the meaning may be _singular_; so that the -s in _Wale-s_ is the -s in _fathers_, &c.

2. It has grown out of the Anglo-Saxon from _wealhas_ = _foreigners_, from _wealh_ = _a foreigner_, the name by which the Welsh are spoken of by the Germans of England, just as the Italians are called Welsh by the Germans of Germany; and just as _wal-nuts_ = _foreign nuts_, or _nuces Galliae_. _Welsh_ = _weall-isc_ = _foreign_, and is a derived adjective.

3. The transfer of the name of the _people_ inhabiting a certain country to the _country_ so inhabited, was one of the commonest processes in both Anglo-Saxon and Old English.


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