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A Handbook of the English Language by Latham

The forces of the auxiliary verbs



s. 282. Of the divisions of verbs into active and passive, transitive and intransitive, unless there be an accompanying change of _form_, etymology takes no cognisance. The forces of the auxiliary verbs, and the tenses to which they are equivalent, are also points of syntax rather than of etymology.

Four classes, however, of _derived_ verbs, as opposed to _simple_, especially deserve notice.

I. Those ending in -en; as _soften_, _whiten_, _strengthen_, &c. Here the -en is a derivational affix; and not a representative of the Anglo-Saxon infinitive form -an (as _lufian_, _baernan_ = _to love_, _to burn_), and the Old English -en (as _tellen_, _loven_).

II. Transitive verbs derived from intransitives by a change of the vowel of the root.

_Primitive Intransitive Form._ _Derived Transitive Form._

Rise Raise. Lie Lay. Sit Set. Fall Fell. Drink Drench.

In Anglo-Saxon these words were more numerous than they are at present.

_Intrans. Infinitive._ _Trans. Infinitive._

Yrnan, _to run_ Aernan, _to make to run_. Byrnan, _to burn_ Baernan, _to make to burn_. Drincan, _to drink_ Drencan, _to drench_. Sincan, _to sink_ Sencan, _to make to sink_. Liegan, _to lie_ Lecgan, _to lay_. Sittan, _to sit_ Settan, _to set_. Dr['i]fan, _to drift_ Draefan, _to drive_. Feallan, _to fall_ Fyllan, _to fell_. Weallan, _to boil_ Wyllan, _to make to boil_. Fleogan, _to fly_ A-fligan, _to put to flight_. Beogan, _to bow_ B['i]gan, _to bend_. Faran, _to go_ Feran, _to convey_. Wacan, _to wake_ Weccan, _to waken_.

All these intransitives form their praeterite by a change of vowel; as _sink_, _sank_; all the transitives by the addition of d or t, as _sell_, _sell'd_.

III. Verbs derived from nouns by a change of accent; as _to surv['e]y_, from a _s['u]rvey_.

_Nouns._ _Verbs._ | _Nouns._ _Verbs._ | ['A]bsent abs['e]nt. | ['E]xtract extr['a]ct. ['A]bstract abstr['a]ct. | F['e]rment ferm['e]nt. ['A]ccent acc['e]nt. | Fr['e]quent frequ['e]nt. ['A]ffix aff['i]x. | ['I]mport imp['o]rt. A['u]gment augm['e]nt. | ['I]ncense inc['e]nse. C['o]lleague coll['e]ague. | ['I]nsult ins['u]lt. C['o]mpact comp['a]ct. | ['O]bject obj['e]ct. C['o]mpound comp['o]und. | P['e]rfume perf['u]me. C['o]mpress compr['e]ss. | P['e]rmit perm['i]t. C['o]ncert conc['e]rt. | Pr['e]fix pref['i]x. C['o]ncrete concr['e]te. | Pr['e]mise prem['i]se. C['o]nduct cond['u]ct. | Pr['e]sage pres['a]ge. C['o]nfine conf['i]ne. | Pr['e]sent pres['e]nt. C['o]nflict confl['i]ct. | Pr['o]duce prod['u]ce. C['o]nserve cons['e]rve. | Pr['o]ject proj['e]ct. C['o]nsort cons['o]rt. | Pr['o]test prot['e]st. C['o]ntract contr['a]ct. | R['e]bel reb['e]l. C['o]ntrast contr['a]st. | R['e]cord rec['o]rd. C['o]nverse conv['e]rse. | R['e]fuse ref['u]se. C['o]nvert conv['e]rt. | S['u]bject subj['e]ct. D['e]scant desc['a]nt. | S['u]rvey surv['e]y. D['e]sert des['e]rt. | T['o]rment torm['e]nt. D['i]gest dig['e]st. | Tr['a]nsfer transf['e]r. ['E]ssay ess['a]y. | Tr['a]nsport transp['o]rt.

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