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A Handbook of the English Language by Latham

Lufiadh Lufiadh Lufiadh


attributes the change of accent to the influence of the participial termination -ing. All words thus affected are of foreign origin.

IV. Verbs formed from nouns by changing a final _sharp_ consonant into its corresponding _flat_ one; as,

_The_ use _to_ use, _pronounced_ uze. _The_ breath _to_ breathe -- breadhe. _The_ cloth _to_ clothe -- clodhe.

* * * * *



s. 283. Compared with the Latin, the Greek, the Moeso-Gothic, and almost all the ancient languages, there is, in English, in respect to the persons of the verbs, but a very slight amount of inflection. This may be seen by comparing the English word _call_ with the Latin _voco_.

_Sing._ _Plur._ | _Sing._ _Plur._ 1. Voc-o Voc-amus. | Call Call. 2. Voc-as Voc-atis. | Call-est Call. 3. Voc-at Voc-ant. | [52]Call-eth Call.

Here the Latins have different forms for each different person, whilst the English have forms for two only; and even of these one (_callest_) is becoming obsolete. With the forms voc-o, voc-amus, voc-atis, voc-ant, there is, in the current English,

nothing correspondent.

In the word _am_, as compared with _are_ and _art_, we find a sign of the first person singular.

In the old forms _tellen_, _weren_, &c., we have a sign of the plural number.

s. 284. In the Modern English, the Old English, and the Anglo-Saxon, the peculiarities of our personal inflections are very great. This may be seen from the following tables of comparison:--

_Present Tense, Indicative Mood._


_1st person._ _2nd person._ _3rd person._

_Singular._ S[^o]kja S[^o]keis S[^o]keith--_seek_. _Plural._ S[^o]kjam S[^o]keith Sokjand.

_Old High German._

_Singular._ Prennu Prenn[^i]s Prennit--_burn_. _Plural._ Prennames Prennat Prennant.


_Singular._ Kalla Kallar Kallar--_call_. _Plural._ K[^o]llum Kallith Kalla.

_Old Saxon._

_Singular._ S[^o]kju S[^o]k[^i]s S[^o]k[^i]d--_seek_. _Plural._ S[^o]kjad S[^o]kjad S[^o]kjad.


_Singular._ Lufige Lufast Lufadh. _Plural._ Lufiadh Lufiadh Lufiadh.

_Old English._

_Singular._ Love Lovest Loveth. _Plural._ Loven Loven Loven.

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