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A Handbook of the English Language by Latham

Of Eald Seaxum comon E 'a st Seaxan


s.

9. This was written about A.D. 731, 131 years after the introduction of Christianity, and nearly 300 after the supposed landing of Hengist and Horsa in A.D. 449.

It is the first passage which contains the names of either the _Angles_ or the _Jutes_. Gildas, who wrote more than 150 years earlier, mentions only the _Saxons_--"ferocissimi illi nefandi nominis _Saxones_."

It is, also, the passage which all subsequent writers have either translated or adopted. Thus it re-appears in Alfred, and again in the Saxon Chronicle.[10]

"Of Jotum comon Cantware and Wihtware, thaet is seo maeiadh the n['u] eardath on Wiht, and thaet cynn on West-Sexum dhe man gyt haet I['u]tnacyun. Of Eald-Seaxum comon E['a]st-Seaxan, and Sudh-Seaxan and West-Seaxan. Of Angle comon (se ['a] sidhdhan st['o]d westig betwix I['u]tum and Seaxum) E['a]st-Engle, Middel-Angle, Mearce, and ealle Nordhymbra."

From the Jutes came the inhabitants of Kent and of Wight, that is, the race that now dwells in Wight, and that tribe amongst the West-Saxons which is yet called the Jute tribe. From the Old-Saxons came the East-Saxons, and South-Saxons, and West-Saxons. From the Angles, land (which has since always stood waste betwixt the Jutes and Saxons) came the East-Angles, Middle-Angles, Mercians, and all the Northumbrians.

justify;">s. 10. A portion of these extracts will now be submitted to criticism; that portion being the statement concerning the _Jutes_.

The words _usque hodie--Jutarum natio nominatur_ constitute contemporary and unexceptionable evidence to the existence of a people with a name like that of the _Jutes_ in the time of Beda--or A.D. 731.

The exact name is not so certain. The term _Jutnacyn_ from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is in favour of the notion that it began with the sounds of j and u, in other words that it was _Jut_.

But the term _Geatum_, which we find in Alfred, favours the form in g followed by ea.

Thirdly, the forms _Wihtware_, and _Wihttan_, suggest the likelihood of the name being _Wiht_.

Lastly, there is a passage in Asserius[11] which gives us the form _Gwith_--"Mater" (of Alfred the Great) "quoque ejusdem Osburgh nominabatur, religiosa nimium foemina, nobilis ingenio, nobilis et genere; quae erat filia Oslac famosi pincernae Aethelwulf regis; qui Oslac Gothus erat natione, ortus enim erat de Gothis et Jutis; de semine scilicet Stuf et Wihtgur, duorum fratrum et etiam comitum, qui accept[^a] potestate Vectis insulae ab avunculo suo Cerdic rege et Cynric filio suo, consobrino eorum, paucos Britones ejusdem insulae accolas, quos in e[^a] invenire potuerant, in loco qui dicitur, _Gwithgaraburgh_ occiderunt, caeteri enim accolae ejusdem insulae ante sunt occisi aut exules aufugerant."--Asserius, "De Gestis Alfredi Regis."

Now, _Gwith-gara-burgh_ means the _burg_ or _town of_ the _With-ware_;[12] these being, undoubtedly, no Germans at all, but the native Britons of the Isle of Wight (Vectis), whose designation in Latin would be _Vecticolae_ or _Vectienses_.

This being the case, how can they be descended from German or Danish _Jutes_? and how can we reconcile the statement of Beda with that of Asser?


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