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A Handbook of the English Language by Latham

Adverbs of this kind are adverbs of deflection


III.

_According to the form._--Sometimes the derivational element is a vowel (as the -ie in _doggie_), sometimes a consonant (as the -th in _strength_), sometimes a vowel and consonant combined; in other words a syllable (as the -en, in _whiten_), sometimes a change of vowel without any addition (as the -i in _tip_, compared with _top_), sometimes a change of consonant without any addition (as the z in _prize_, compared with _price_). Sometimes it is a change of accent, like a _s['u]rvey_, compared with _to surv['e]y_. To classify derivations in this manner, is to classify them according to their form.

IV. _According to the historical origin of the derivational elements._

V. _According to the number of the derivational elements._--In _fisher_, as compared with _fish_, there is but one derivational affix. In _fishery_, as compared with _fish_, the number of derivational elements is two.

s. 373. In words like _bishopric_, and many others mentioned in the last Chapter, we had compound words under the appearance of derived ones; in words like _upmost_, and many others, we have derivation under the appearance of composition.

* * * * *

CHAPTER XXXIII.

ADVERBS.

s. 374. _Adverbs._--The adverbs are capable of being classified

after a variety of principles.

Firstly, they may be divided according to their meaning. In this case we speak of the adverbs of _time_, _place_, _number_, _manner_.

s. 375. _Well_, _better_, _ill_, _worse_.--Here we have a class of adverbs expressive of degree, or intensity. Adverbs of this kind are capable of taking an inflection, viz., that of the comparative and superlative degrees.

_Now_, _then_, _here_, _there_.--In the idea expressed by these words there are no degrees of intensity. Adverbs of this kind are incapable of taking any inflection.

Adverbs differ from nouns and verbs in being susceptible of one sort of inflection only, viz., that of degree.

s. 376. Secondly, adverbs may be divided according to their form and origin.

_Better_, _worse_.--Here the words are sometimes adverbs; sometimes adjectives.--_This book is better than that_--here _better_ agrees with _book_, and is, therefore, adjectival. _This looks better than that_--here _better_ qualifies _looks_, and is therefore adverbial. Again; _to do a thing with violence_ is equivalent _to do a thing violently_. This shows how adverbs may arise out of cases. In words like the English _better_, the Latin _vi_ = _violenter_, the Greek [Greek: kalon] = [Greek: kalos], we have adjectives in their degrees, and substantives in their cases, with adverbial powers. In other words, nouns are deflected from their natural sense to an adverbial one. Adverbs of this kind are adverbs of _deflection_.

_Brightly_, _bravely_.--Here an adjective is rendered adverbial by the addition of the derivative syllable -ly. Adverbs like _brightly_, &c., may be called adverbs of _derivation_.


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