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A Handbook of the English Language by Latham

Quite explain the form yon d er


383. The full amount of change in this respect may be seen from the following table, illustrative of the forms _here_, _hither_, _hence_.

_Moeso-Gothic_ thar, thath, thathro, _there, thither, thence_. h[^e]r, hith, hidr[^o], _here, hither, hence_. _Old High hu[^a]r, huara, huanana, _where, whither, whence_. German_ d[^a]r, dara, danana, _there, thither, thence_. hear, h[^e]ra, hinana, _here, hither, hence_. _Old Saxon_ huar, huar, huanan, _where, whither, whence_. thar, thar, thanan, _there, thither, thence_. h[^e]r, her, henan, _here, hither, hence_. _Anglo-Saxon_ thar, thider, thonan, _there, thither, thence_. hvar, hvider, hvonan, _where, whither, whence_. h[^e]r, hider, henan, _here, hither, hence_. _Old Norse_ thar, thadhra, thadhan, _there, thither, thence_. hvar, hvert, hvadhan, _where, whither, whence_. h[^e]r, hedhra, hedhan, _here, hither, hence_. _Middle High d[^a], dan, dannen, _there, thither, thence_. German_ w[^a], war, wannen, _where, whither, whence_. hie, her, hennen, _here, hither, hence_. _Modern High da, dar, dannen, _there,

thither, thence_. German_ wo, wohin, wannen, _where, whither, whence_. hier, her, hinnen, _here, hither, hence_.

s. 384. Local terminations of this kind, in general, were commoner in the earlier stages of language than at present. The following are from the Moeso-Gothic:--

Innathr[^o] = _from within_. Utathr[^o] = _from without_. Iuthathr[^o] = _from above_. F['a]irrathr[^o] = _from afar_. Allathr[^o] = _from all quarters_.

s. 385. The -ce ( = es) in _hen-ce_, _when-ce_, _then-ce_, has yet to be satisfactorily explained. The Old English is _whenn-es_, _thenn-es_. As far, therefore, as the spelling is concerned, they are in the same predicament with the word _once_, which is properly _on-es_, the genitive of _one_. This origin is probable, but not certain.

s. 386. _Yonder_.--In the Moeso-Gothic we have the following forms: _j['a]inar_, _j['a]ina_, _j['a]nthr[^o]_ = _illic_, _illuc_, _illinc_. They do not, however, quite explain the form _yon-d-er_. It is not clear whether the d = the -d in _j[^a]ind_, or the th in _jainthro_.

s. 387. _Anon_, is used by Shakspeare, in the sense of _presently_.--The probable history of this word is as follows: the first syllable contains a root akin to the root _yon_, signifying _distance in place_. The second is a shortened form of the Old High German and Middle High German, -nt, a termination expressive, 1, of removal in _space_; 2, of removal in _time_; Old High German, _enont_, _ennont_; Middle High German, _enentlig_, _jenunt_ = _beyond_.

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s. 388. The Anglo-Saxon adverbs are _whenne_ and _thenne_ = _when_, _then_.

The masculine accusative cases of the relative and demonstrative pronoun are _hwaene_ (_hwone_) and _thaene_ (_thone_).

Notwithstanding the difference, the first form is a variety of the second; so that the adverbs _when_ and _then_ are really pronominal in origin.

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