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A Handbook of the English Language by Latham

With both infinitives and participles


3. Auxiliary derived from the idea of future destination, dependent upon circumstances external to the agent--_shall_. There are etymological reasons for believing that _shall_ is no present tense, but a perfect.

4. Auxiliary derived from the idea of future destination, dependent upon the volition of the agent--_will_. _Shall_ is simply predictive; _will_ is predictive and promissive as well.

5. Auxiliary derived from the idea of power, dependent upon circumstances external to the agent--_may_.

6. Auxiliary derived from the idea of power, dependent upon circumstances internal to the agent--_can_. _May_ is simply permissive; _can_ is potential. In respect to the idea of power residing in the agent being the cause which determines a contingent action, _can_ is in the same relation to _may_ as _will_ is to _shall_.

"_May_ et _can_, cum eorum praeteritis imperfectis, _might_ et _could_, potentiam innuunt: cum hoc tamen discrimine: _may_ et _might_ vel de jure vel saltem de rei possibilitate, dicuntur, at _can_ et _could_ de viribus agentis."--WALLIS, p. 107.

7. Auxiliary derived from the idea of sufferance--_let_.

8. Auxiliary derived from the idea of necessity--_must_.

"_Must_ necessitatem innuit. Debeo, oportet, necesse est urere, _I must burn_. Aliquando sed rarius in praeterito dicitur _must_ (quasi ex _must'd_ seu _must't_ contractum). Sic, si de praeterito dicatur, _he must_ (seu _must't_) _be burnt_, oportebat uri seu necesse habuit ut ureretur."--WALLIS, 107.

9. Auxiliary derived from the idea of action--_do_.

C. _Classification of auxiliary verbs in respect to their mode of construction._--Auxiliary verbs combine with others in three ways.

1. _With participles._--a) With the present, or active, participle--_I am speaking_: b) With the past, or passive, participle--_I am beaten_, _I have beaten_.

2. _With infinitives._--a) With the objective infinitive--_I can speak_: b) With the gerundial infinitive--_I have to speak_.

3. _With both infinitives and participles._--_I shall have done_, _I mean to have done_.

D. _Auxiliary verbs may be classified according to their effect._--Thus--_have_ makes the combination in which it appears equivalent to a tense; _be_ to a passive form; _may_ to a sign of mood, &c.

This sketch of the different lights under which auxiliary verbs may be viewed, has been written for the sake of illustrating, rather than exhausting, the subject.

s. 492. The combination of the auxiliary, _have_, with the past participle requires notice. It is, here, advisable to make the following classifications.

1. The combination with the participle of a _transitive verb._--_I have ridden the horse_; _thou hast broken the sword_; _he has smitten the enemy_.

2. The combination with the participle of an _intransitive_ verb,--_I have waited_; _thou hast hungered_; _he has slept_.


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