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A Handbook of the English Language by Latham

They were shapen neither like the Frisian nor the Danish


s.

55. The Frisians have been mentioned as a Germanic population _likely_ to have joined in the invasion of Britain; the _presumption_ in favor of their having done so arising from their geographical position.

There is, however, something more than mere presumption upon this point.

Archbishop Usher, amongst the earlier historians, and Mr. Kemble amongst those of the present day, as well as other intermediate investigators, have drawn attention to certain important notices of them.

The main facts bearing upon this question are the following:--

1. Hengist, according to some traditions, was a Frisian hero.

2. Procopius wrote as follows:--[Greek: Brittian de ten neson ethne tria poluanthropotata echousi, basileus te eis auton hekastoi ephesteken, onomata de keitai tois ethnesi toutois Angiloi te kai Phrissones kai hoi tei nesoi homonumoi Brittones. Tosaute de he tonde ton ethnon poluanthropia phainetai ousa hoste ana pan etos kata pollous enthende metanistamenoi xun gunaixi kai paisin es Phrangous chorousin].--Procop. B. G. iv. 20.

3. In the Saxon Chronicle we find the following passage:--"That same year, the armies from among the East-Anglians, and from among the North-Humbrians, harassed the land of the West-Saxons chiefly, most of all by their 'aescs,' which they had built many

years before. Then king Alfred commanded long ships to be built to oppose the aescs; they were full-nigh twice as long as the others; some had sixty oars, and some had more; they were both swifter and steadier, and also higher than the others. They were shapen neither like the _Frisian_ nor the Danish, but so as it seemed to him that they would be most efficient. Then some time in the same year, there came six ships to Wight, and there did much harm, as well as in Devon, and elsewhere along the sea coast. Then the king commanded nine of the new ships to go thither, and they obstructed their passage from the port towards the outer sea. Then went they with three of their ships out against them; and three lay in the upper part of the port in the dry; the men were gone from them ashore. Then took they two of the three ships at the outer part of the port, and killed the men, and the other ship escaped; in that also the men were killed except five; they got away because the other ships were aground. They also were aground very disadvantageously, three lay aground on that side of the deep on which the Danish ships were aground, and all the rest upon the other side, so that no one of them could get to the others. But when, the water had ebbed many furlongs from the ships, then the Danish men went from their three ships to the other three which were left by the tide on their side, and then they there fought against them. There was slain Lucumon the king's reeve, and Wulfheard the _Frisian_, and Aebbe the _Frisian_, and Aethelhere the _Frisian_, and Aethelferth the king's 'geneat,' and of all the men, _Frisians_ and English, seventy-two; and of the Danish men one hundred and twenty."

s. 56. I believe then, that, so far from the current accounts being absolutely correct, in respect to the Germanic elements of the English population, the _Jutes_, as mentioned by Beda, formed _no_ part of it, whilst the _Frisians_, _not_ so mentioned, _were a real constituent therein_; besides which, there may, very easily, have been other Germanic tribes, though in smaller proportions.


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