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A Handbook of the English Language by Latham

As sigma is to s so is zeta to z


s.

114. _The system of the mutes._--Preliminary to the consideration of the system of the mutes, let it be observed:--

1. that the th in _thin_ is a simple single sound, different from the th in _thine_, and that it may be expressed by the sign th.

2. That the th in _thine_ is a simple single sound, different from the th in _thin_, and that it may be expressed by the sign dh.

3. That the sh in _shine_ is a simple single sound, and that it may be expressed by the sign [sigma][42] (Greek [Greek: sigma]).

4. That the z in _azure_, _glazier_ (French j) is a simple single sound, and that it may be expressed by the sign [zeta][42] (Greek [Greek: zeta]).

5. That in the Laplandic, and possibly in many other languages, there are two peculiar sounds, different from any in English, German, and French, &c., and that they may respectively be expressed by the sign [kappa] and the sign [gamma][42] (Greek [Greek: kappa] and [Greek: gamma]).

s. 115. With these preliminary notices we may exhibit the system of the sixteen mutes; having previously determined the meaning of two fresh terms, and bearing in mind what was said concerning the words _sharp_ and _flat_, _continuous_ and _explosive_.

_Lene and aspirate._--From

the sound of p in _pat_, the sound of f in _fat_ differs in a certain degree. This difference is not owing to a difference in their sharpness or flatness. Each is sharp. Neither is it owing to a difference in their continuity or explosiveness; although f is continuous, whilst p is explosive. This we may ascertain by considering the position of s. The sound of s is _continuous_; yet s, in respect to the difference under consideration, is classed not with f the continuous sound but with p the explosive one. This difference, which has yet to be properly elucidated, is expressed by a particular term; and p is called _lene_, f is called _aspirate_.

As f is to p so is v to b. As v is to b so is th to t. As th is to t so is dh to d. As dh is to d so is [kappa] to k. As [kappa] is to k so is [gamma] to g. As [gamma] is to g so is [sigma] to s. As [sigma] is to s so is [zeta] to z.

Hence p, b, t, d, k, g, s, z, are _lene_; f, v, th, dh, [kappa], [gamma], [sigma], [zeta], are _aspirate_. Also p, f, t, th, k, [kappa], s, [sigma], are _sharp_, whilst b, v, d, dh, g, [gamma], z, [zeta], are _flat_; so that there is a double series of relationship capable of being expressed as follows:--

_Lene._ _Aspirate._ | _Sharp._ _Flat._ Sharp. Flat. Sharp. Flat. | Lene. Aspirate. Lene. Aspirate. p b f v | p f b v t d th dh | t th d dh k g [kappa] [gamma] | k [kappa] g [gamma] s z [sigma] [zeta] | s [sigma] z [zeta]

All the so-called aspirates are continuous; and, with the exception of s and z, all the lenes are explosive.


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