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A Handbook of the English Language by Latham

I ee and u oo are incapable of becoming broad


s.

124. It is not every vowel that is susceptible of every modification. I (ee) and u (oo) are incapable of becoming _broad_. The e in _bed_, although both broad and slender, is incapable of becoming _independent_. For the u in _but_, and for the oe of certain foreign languages, I have no satisfactory systematic position.

s. 125. _Vowel System._

_Broad._ _Slender._ _Independent._ || _Independent._ | _Dependent._ a, in _father_ || a, in _fate_ | a, in _fat_. || ['e] in _ferm['e]_, | ['e], in _ferm['e]_, || _long_ | _short_. e, in _meine_, Germ. || | e, in _bed_. || ee, in _feet_ | i, _pit_. || ue, of the German, | the same, _short_. || _long_ | || oo, in _book_ | ou, in _could_. || o in _chiuso_ | the same, _short_. aw, in _bawl_ || o, in _note_ | o, in _not_.

From these the semivowels w and y make a transition to the consonants v and the so-called aspirate of g, respectively.

s. 126. _System of Consonants._

Liquids.

Mutes. Semivowels.

|| Lene. | Aspirate. || || Sharp. Flat. | Sharp. Flat. || || | || m || p v | f v || w n || t d | th dh || . l || k g |[kappa] [gamma] || y r || s z |[sigma] [zeta] || .

n is doubled in _unnatural_, _innate_, _oneness_. l -- _soulless_, _civil-list_, _palely_. k -- _book-case_. t -- _seaport-town_.

It must not, however, be concealed, that, in the mouths even of correct speakers, one of the doubled sounds is often dropped.

s. 132. _True aspirates rare._--The criticism applied to words like _pitted_, &c., applies also to words like _Philip_, _thin_, _thine_, &c. There is therein no sound of h. How the so-called aspirates differ from their corresponding lenes has not yet been determined. That it is _not_ by the addition of h is evident. Ph and th are conventional modes of spelling simple single sounds, which might better be expressed by simple single signs.

In our own language the _true_ aspirates, like the true reduplications, are found only in compound words; and there they are often slurred in the pronunciation.

We find p and h in the words _haphazard_, _upholder_. -- b and h -- _abhorrent_, _cub-hunting_. -- f and h -- _knife-handle_, _off hand_. -- v and h -- _stave-head_. -- d and h -- _adhesive_, _childhood_. -- t and h -- _nuthook_. -- th and h -- _withhold_. -- k and h -- _inkhorn_, _bakehouse_. -- g and h -- _gig-horse_. -- s and h -- _race-horse_, _falsehood_. -- z and h -- _exhibit_, _exhort_. -- r and h -- _perhaps_. -- l and h -- _wellhead_, _foolhardy_. -- m and h -- _Amherst_. -- n and h -- _unhinge_, _inherent_, _unhappy_.

* * * * *

CHAPTER IV.


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