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A History of China by Wolfram Eberhard

Dungans and Yakub Beg's rebellion


286: The existence of _hong_ is known since 1686, see P'eng Tse-i and Wang Chu-an's recent studies. For details on foreign trade see H.B. Morse, _The Chronicles of the East India Company Trading to China 1635-1834_, Oxford 1926, 4 vols., and J.K. Fairbank, _Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast. The Opening of the Treaty Ports, 1842-1854_, Cambridge, Mass., 1953, 2 vols.--For Lin I used G.W. Overdijkink's study.

p. 287: On customs read St. F. Wright, _Hart and the Chinese Customs_, Belfast 1950.

p. 288: For early industry see A. Feuerwerker, _China's Early Industrialization: Sheng Hsuan-huai (1844-1916_), Cambridge, Mass., 1958.

p. 289: The Chinese source materials for the Mohammedan revolts have recently been published, but an analysis of the importance of the revolts still remains to be done.--On T'ai-p'ing much has been published, especially in the last years in China, so that all documents are now available. I used among other studies, details brought out by Lo Hsiang-lin and Jen Yu-wen.

p. 291: For Tseng Kuo-fan see W.J. Hail, _Tseng Kuo-fan and the T'ai-p'ing Rebellion_, New Haven 1927, but new research on him is about to be published.--The Nien-fei had some connection with the White Lotus, and were known since 1814, see Chiang Siang-tseh, _The Nien Rebellion_, Seattle 1954.

p. 292: Little is known

about Salars, Dungans and Yakub Beg's rebellion, mainly because relevant Turkish sources have not yet been studied. On Salars see L. Schram, _The Monguors of Kansu_, Philadelphia 1954, p. 23 and P. Pelliot; on Dungans see I. Grebe.

p. 293: On Tso Tsung-t'ang see G. Ch'en, _Tso Tung T'ang, Pioneer Promotor of the Modern Dockyard and Woollen Mill in China_, Peking 1938, and _Yenching Journal of Soc. Studies_, vol. I.

p. 294: For the T'ung-chih period, see now Mary C. Wright, _The Last Stand of Chinese Conservativism. The T'ung-chih Restoration, 1862-1874_, Stanford 1957.

p. 295: Ryukyu is Chinese: Liu-ch'iu; Okinawa is one of the islands of this group.--Formosa is Chinese: T'ai-wan (Taiwan). Korea is Chinese: Chao-hsien, Japanese: Chosen.

p. 297: M.C. Wright has shown the advisers around the ruler before the Empress Dowager realized the severity of the situation.--Much research is under way to study the beginning of industrialization of Japan, and my opinions have changed greatly, due to the research done by Japanese scholars and such Western scholars as H. Rosovsky and Th. Smith. The eminent role of the lower aristocracy has been established. Similar research for China has not even seriously started. My remarks are entirely preliminary.

p. 298: For K'ang Yo-wei, I use work done by O. Franke and others. See M.E. Cameron, _The Reform Movement in China, 1898-1921_, Stanford 1921. The best bibliography for this period is J.K. Fairbank and Liu Kwang-ching, _Modern China: A Bibliographical Guide to Chinese Works, 1898-1937_, Cambridge, Mass., 1950. The political history of the time, as seen by a Chinese scholar, is found in Li Chien-nung, _The Political History of China 1840-1928_, Princeton 1956.--For the social history of this period see Chang Chung-li, _The Chinese Gentry_, Seattle 1955.--For the history of Tz[)u] Hsi Bland-Backhouse, _China under the Empress Dowager_, Peking 1939 (Third ed.) is antiquated, but still used. For some of K'ang Yo-wei's ideas, see now K'ang Yo-wei: _Ta T'ung Shu. The One World Philosophy of K'ang Yu Wei_, London 1957.

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