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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

German translation by Schiefner


[Footnote

2: Takakusu's "A study of the Paramartha's life of Vasubandhu," _J.R.A.S_. 1905.]

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least three other books, viz. _Catu@hs'ataka, Hastabalaprakara@nav@rtti_ and _Cittavis`uddhiprakara@na_ [Footnote ref 1]. In the small work called _Hastabalaprakara@nav@rtti_ Aryyadeva says that whatever depends for its existence on anything else may be proved to be illusory; all our notions of external objects depend on space perceptions and notions of part and whole and should therefore be regarded as mere appearance. Knowing therefore that all that is dependent on others for establishing itself is illusory, no wise man should feel attachment or antipathy towards these mere phenomenal appearances. In his _Cittavis'uddhiprakara@na_ he says that just as a crystal appears to be coloured, catching the reflection of a coloured object, even so the mind though in itself colourless appears to show diverse colours by coloration of imagination (_vikalpa_). In reality the mind (_citta_) without a touch of imagination (_kalpana_) in it is the pure reality.

It does not seem however that the S'unyavadins could produce any great writers after Candrakirtti. References to S'unyavada show that it was a living philosophy amongst the Hindu writers until the time of the great Mima@msa authority Kumarila who flourished in the eighth century; but in later times the S'unyavadins were no longer occupying the position

of strong and active disputants.

The Tathataa Philosophy of As'vagho@sa (80 A.D.) [Footnote ref 2].

As'vagho@sa was the son of a Brahmin named Sai@mhaguhya who spent his early days in travelling over the different parts of India and defeating the Buddhists in open debates. He was probably converted to Buddhism by Par@sva who was an important person in the third Buddhist Council promoted, according to some authorities, by the King of Kashmere and according to other authorities by Pu@nyayas'as [Footnote ref 3].

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[Footnote 1: Aryyadeva's _Hastabalaprakara@nav@rtti_ has been reclaimed by Dr. F.W. Thomas. Fragmentary portions of his _Cittavis'uddhiprakara@na_ were published by Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasada s'astri in the Bengal Asiatic Society's journal, 1898.]

[Footnote 2: The above section is based on the _Awakening of Faith_, an English translation by Suzuki of the Chinese version of _S'raddhotpadas`astra_ by As'vagho@sa, the Sanskrit original of which appears to have been lost. Suzuki has brought forward a mass of evidence to show that As'vagho@sa was a contemporary of Kani@ska.]

[Footnote 3: Taranatha says that he was converted by Aryadeva, a disciple of Nagarjuna, _Geschichte des Buddhismus_, German translation by Schiefner, pp. 84-85. See Suzuki's _Awakening of Faith_, pp. 24-32. As'vagho@sa wrote the _Buddhacaritakavya_, of great poetical excellence, and the _Mahala@mkaras'astra_. He was also a musician and had invented a musical instrument called Rastavara that he might by that means convert the people of the city. "Its melody was classical, mournful, and melodious, inducing the audience to ponder on the misery, emptiness, and non-atmanness of life." Suzuki, p. 35.]

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He held that in the soul two aspects may be distinguished --the aspect as thatness (_bhutatathata_) and the aspect as the cycle of birth and death (_sa@msara_).


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