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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

All these phenomena have thus sprung forth through avidya


style="text-align: justify;">action), producing misery (_du@hkha_); (2) by the appearance of an ego or of a perceiver; and (3) by the creation of an external world which does not exist in itself, independent of the perceiver. Conditioned by the unreal external world six kinds of phenomena arise in succession. The first phenomenon is intelligence (sensation); being affected by the external world the mind becomes conscious of the difference between the agreeable and the disagreeable. The second phenomenon is succession. Following upon intelligence, memory retains the sensations, agreeable as well as disagreeable, in a continuous succession of subjective states. The third phenomenon is clinging. Through the retention and succession of sensations, agreeable as well as disagreeable, there arises the desire of clinging. The fourth phenomenon is an attachment to names or ideas (_sa@mjna_), etc. By clinging the mind hypostatizes all names whereby to give definitions to all things. The fifth phenomenon is the performance of deeds (_karma_). On account of attachment to names, etc., there arise all the variations of deeds, productive of individuality. "The sixth phenomenon is the suffering due to the fetter of deeds. Through deeds suffering arises in which the mind finds itself entangled and curtailed of its freedom." All these phenomena have thus sprung forth through avidya.

The relation between this truth and avidya is in one sense a mere identity and

may be illustrated by the simile of all kinds of pottery which though different are all made of the same clay [Footnote ref 1]. Likewise the undefiled (_anasrava_) and ignorance (_avidya_) and their various transient forms all come from one and the same entity. Therefore Buddha teaches that all beings are from all eternity abiding in Nirva@na.

It is by the touch of ignorance (_avidya_) that this truth assumes all the phenomenal forms of existence.

In the all-conserving mind (_alayavijnana_) ignorance manifests itself; and from non-enlightenment starts that which sees, that which represents, that which apprehends an objective world, and that which constantly particularizes. This is called ego (_manas_). Five different names are given to the ego (according to its different modes of operation). The first name is activity-consciousness (_karmavijnana_) in the sense that through the agency of ignorance an unenlightened mind begins to be disturbed (or


[Footnote 1: Compare Chandogya, VI. 1. 4.]


awakened). The second name is evolving-consciousness (_prav@rttiivijnana_) in the sense that when the mind is disturbed, there evolves that which sees an external world. The third name

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