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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

And that which has the characteristic of the sadhya


natural indissoluble connection (_svabhavapratibandha_), be it of the nature of identity of essence of the species in the genus or inseparable connection of the effect with the cause, is the ground of all inference [Footnote ref 1]. The svabhavapratibandha determines the inseparability of connection (avinabhavaniyama) and the inference is made not through a series of premisses, but directly by the li@nga (reason) which has the inseparable connection [Footnote ref 2].

The second type of inference known as pararthanumana agrees with svarthanumana in all essential characteristics; the main difference between the two is this, that in the case of pararthanumana, the inferential process has to be put verbally in premisses.

Pandit Ratnakarasanti, probably of the ninth or the tenth century A.D., wrote a paper named _Antarvyaptisamarthana_ in which


[Footnote 1: _na hi yo yatra svabhavena na pratibaddha@h sa tam apratibaddhavi@sayamavs'yameva na vyabhicaratiti nasti tayoravyabhicaraniyama. Nyayabindu@tika_, p. 29.]

[Footnote 2: The inseparable connection determining inference is only possible when the li@nga satisfies the three following conditions, viz. (1) pak@sasattva (existence of the li@nga in the pak@sa--the thing about which something is inferred);

(2) sapak@sasattva (existence of the li@nga in those cases where the sadhya oc probandum existed), and (3) vipak@sasattva (its non-existence in all those places where the sadhya did not exist). The Buddhists admitted three propositions in a syllogism, e.g. The hill has fire, because it has smoke, like a kitchen but unlike a lake.]


he tried to show that the concomitance is not between those cases which possess the li@nga or reason with the cases which possess the sadhya (probandum) but between that which has the characteristics of the li@nga with that which has the characteristics of the sadhya (probandum); or in other words the concomitance is not between the places containing the smoke such as kitchen, etc., and the places containing fire but between that which has the characteristic of the li@nga, viz. the smoke, and that which has the characteristic of the sadhya, viz. the fire. This view of the nature of concomitance is known as inner concomitance (_antarvyapti_), whereas the former, viz. the concomitance between the thing possessing li@nga and that possessing sadhya, is known as outer concomitance (_bahirvyapti_) and generally accepted by the Nyaya school of thought. This antarvyapti doctrine of concomitance is indeed a later Buddhist doctrine.

It may not be out of place here to remark that evidences of some form of Buddhist logic probably go back at least as early as the _Kathavatthu_ (200 B.C.). Thus Aung on the evidence of the _Yamaka_ points out that Buddhist logic at the time of As'oka "was conversant with the distribution of terms" and the process of conversion. He further points out that the logical premisses such as the udahara@na (_Yo yo aggima so so dhumava_--whatever is fiery is smoky), the upanayana (_ayam pabbato dhumava_--this hill is smoky) and the niggama (_tasmadayam aggima_--therefore that is fiery) were also known. (Aung further sums up the method of the arguments which are found in the _Kathavatthu_ as follows:

"Adherent. Is _A B_? (_@thapana_). Opponent. Yes.

Adherent. Is _C D_? (_papana_). Opponent. No.

Adherent. But if _A_ be _B_ then (you should have said) _C_ is _D_. That _B_ can be affirmed of _A_ but _D_ of _C_ is false. Hence your first answer is refuted.")

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