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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

Pramada or inadvertence is again of five kinds


In

the ordinary course karma takes effect and produces its proper results, and at such a stage the soul is said to be in the _audayika_ state. By proper efforts karma may however be prevented from taking effect, though it still continues to exist, and this is said to be the _aupas'amika_ state of the soul. When karma is not only prevented from operating but is annihilated, the soul is said to be in the _k@sayika_ state, and it is from this state that Mok@sa is attained. There is, however, a fourth state of ordinary good men with whom some karma is annihilated, some neutralized, and some active (_k@sayopas'amika_) [Footnote ref 1].

Karma, Asrava and Nirjara.

It is on account of karma that the souls have to suffer all the experiences of this world process, including births and rebirths in diverse spheres of life as gods, men or animals, or insects. The karmas are certain sorts of infra-atomic particles of matter (_karma-varga@na_}. The influx of these karma particles into the soul is called asrava in Jainism. These karmas are produced by body, mind, and speech. The asravas represent the channels or modes through which the karmas enter the soul, just like the channels through which water enters into a pond. But the Jains distinguish between the channels and the karmas which actually

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[Footnote

1: The stages through which a developing soul passes are technically called _gu@nasthanas_ which are fourteen in number. The first three stages represent the growth of faith in Jainism, the next five stages are those in which all the passions are controlled, in the next four stages the ascetic practises yoga and destroys all his karmas, at the thirteenth stage he is divested of all karmas but he still practises yoga and at the fourteenth stage he attains liberation (see Dravyasa@mgrahav@rtti, 13th verse).]

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enter through those channels. Thus they distinguish two kinds of asravas, bhavasrava and karmasrava. Bhavasrava means the thought activities of the soul through which or on account of which the karma particles enter the soul [Footnote ref 1]. Thus Nemicandra says that bhavasrava is that kind of change in the soul (which is the contrary to what can destroy the karmasrava), by which the karmas enter the soul [Footnote ref 2]. Karmasrava, however, means the actual entrance of the karma matter into the soul. These bhavasravas are in general of five kinds, namely delusion (_mithyatva_), want of control (_avirati_), inadvertence (_pramada_), the activities of body, mind and speech (_yoga_) and the passions (_ka@sayas_). Delusion again is of five kinds, namely _ekanta_ (a false belief unknowingly accepted and uncritically followed), _viparita_ (uncertainty as to the exact nature of truth), _vinaya_ (retention of a belief knowing it to be false, due to old habit), _sa@ms'aya_ (doubt as to right or wrong) and _ajnana_ (want of any belief due to the want of application of reasoning powers). Avirati is again of five kinds, injury (_hi@msa_), falsehood (_an@rta_), stealing (_cauryya_), incontinence (_abrahma_), and desire to have things which one does not already possess (_parigrahaka@nk@sa_). Pramada or inadvertence is again of five kinds, namely bad conversation (_vikatha_), passions (_ka@saya_), bad use of the five senses (_indriya_), sleep (_nidra_), attachment (_raga_) [Footnote ref 3].


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