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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

And supreme sex control Footnote ref 1


Corresponding

to the two modes of inrush of karmas (bhavasrava and dravyasrava) are two kinds of control opposing this inrush, by actual thought modification of a contrary nature and by the actual stoppage of the inrush of karma particles, and these are respectively called bhavasa@mvara and dravyasa@mvara [Footnote ref 4].

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[Footnote 1: See Gu@naratna, p. 181]

[Footnote 2: _Ibid_.]

[Footnote 3: Nemicandra, 33.]

[Footnote 4: _Varddhama@na_ XVI 67-68, and _Dravyasa@mgrahav@rtti_ S'I. 35.]

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The bhavasa@mvaras are (1) the vows of non-injury, truthfulness, abstinence from stealing, sex-control, and non-acceptance of objects of desire, (2) samitis consisting of the use of trodden tracks in order to avoid injury to insects (_irya_), gentle and holy talk (_bha@sa_), receiving proper alms (_e@sa@na_), etc, (3) _guptis_ or restraints of body, speech and mind, (4) _dharmas_ consisting of habits of forgiveness, humility, straightforwardness, truth, cleanliness, restraint, penance, abandonment indifference to any kind of gain or loss, and supreme sex-control [Footnote ref 1], (5) _anuprek@sa_ consisting of meditation about the transient character of the world, about our helplessness without the

truth, about the cycles of world-existence, about our own responsibilities for our good and bad actions, about the difference between the soul and the non-soul, about the uncleanliness of our body and all that is associated with it, about the influx of karma and its stoppage and the destruction of those karmas which have already entered the soul, about soul, matter and the substance of the universe, about the difficulty of attaining true knowledge, faith and conduct, and about the essential principles of the world [Footnote ref 2], (6) the _pari@sahajaya_ consisting of the conquering of all kinds of physical troubles of heat, cold, etc, and of feelings of discomforts of various kinds, (7) _caritra_ or right conduct.

Next to this we come to nirjara or the purging off of the karmas or rather their destruction. This nirjara also is of two kinds bhavanirjara and dravyanirjara. Bhavanirjara means that change in the soul by virtue of which the karma particles are destroyed. Dravyanirjara means the actual destruction of these karma particles either by the reaping of their effects or by penances before their time of fruition, called savipaka and avipaka nirjaras respectively. When all the karmas are destroyed mok@sa or liberation is effected.

Pudgala.

The _ajiva_ (non-living) is divided into _pudgalastikaya, dharmastikaya, adharmastikaya, akas'astikaya, kala, pu@nya, papa_. The word _pudgala_ means matter [Footnote ref 3], and it is called _astikaya_ in the sense that it occupies space. Pudgala is made up of atoms

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[Footnote 1: _Tattvarthadhigamasutra_.]

[Footnote 2: _Ibid_.]

[Footnote 3: This is entirely different from the Buddhist sense. With the Buddhists _pudgala_ means an individual or a person.]

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which are without size and eternal. Matter may exist in two states, gross (such as things we see around us), and subtle (such as the karma matter which sullies the soul). All material


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