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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

And caritra cessation from doing all that is evil


Time

(_kala_) in reality consists of those innumerable particles which never mix with one another, but which help the happening of the modification or accession of new qualities and the change of qualities of the atoms. Kala does not bring about the changes of qualities, in things, but just as akas'a helps interpenetration and dharma motion, so also kala helps the action of the transformation of new qualities in things. Time perceived as moments, hours, days, etc., is called _samaya_. This is the appearance of the unchangeable kala in so many forms. Kala thus not only aids the modifications of other things, but also allows its own modifications as moments, hours, etc. It is thus a dravya (substance), and the moments, hours, etc., are its paryayas. The unit of samaya is the time required by an atom to traverse a unit of space by a slow movement.

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[Footnote 1: _Dravyasamgrahav@rtti_, 19.]

199

Jaina Cosmography.

According to the Jains, the world is eternal, without beginning or end. Loka is that place in which happiness and misery are experienced as results of virtue and vice. It is composed of three parts, _urdhva_ (where the gods reside), _madhya_ (this world of ours), and _adho_ (where the denizens of hell reside). The mundane universe (_lokakas'a_)

is pervaded with dharma which makes all movement possible. Beyond the lokakas'a there is no dharma and therefore no movement, but only space (_akas'a_). Surrounding this lokakas'a are three layers of air. The perfected soul rising straight over the urdhvaloka goes to the top of this lokakas'a and (there being no dharma) remains motionless there.

Jaina Yoga.

Yoga according to Jainism is the cause of moksa (salvation). This yoga consists of jnana (knowledge of reality as it is), s'raddha (faith in the teachings of the Jinas), and caritra (cessation from doing all that is evil). This caritra consists of _ahi@msa_ (not taking any life even by mistake or unmindfulness), _sun@rta_ (speaking in such a way as is true, good and pleasing), _asteya_ (not taking anything which has not been given), brahmacaryya (abandoning lust foi all kinds of objects, in mind, speech and body), and _aparigraha_ (abandoning attachment for all things) [Footnote ref 1].

These strict rules of conduct only apply to ascetics who are bent on attaining perfection. The standard proposed for the ordinary householders is fairly workable. Thus it is said by Hemacandra, that ordinary householders should earn money honestly, should follow the customs of good people, should marry a good girl from a good family, should follow the customs of the country and so forth. These are just what we should expect from any good and


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