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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

To remain satisfied within oneself


style="text-align: justify;">[Footnote 1: Certain external rules of conduct are also called caritra. These are: _Iryya_ (to go by the path already trodden by others and illuminated by the sun's rays, so that proper precaution may be taken while walking to prevent oneself from treading on insects, etc., which may be lying on the way), _bhasa_ (to speak well and pleasantly to all beings), _isana_ (to beg alms in the proper monastic manner), _danasamiti_ (to inspect carefully the seats avoiding all transgressions when taking or giving anything), _utsargasamiti_ (to take care that bodily refuse may not be thrown in such a way as to injure any being), _manogupti_ (to remove all false thoughts, to remain satisfied within oneself, and hold all people to be the same in mind), _vaggupti_ (absolute silence), and _kayagupti_ (absolute steadiness and fixity of the body). Five other kinds of caritra are counted in _Dravyasamgrahav@rtti_ 35.]


honest householder of the present day. Great stress is laid upon the virtues of ahi@msa, sun@rta, asteya and brahmacaryya, but the root of all these is ahi@msa. The virtues of sun@rta, asteya and brahmacaryya are made to follow directly as secondary corrollaries of ahi@msa. Ahi@msa may thus be generalized as the fundamental ethical virtue of Jainism; judgment on all actions may be passed in accordance with the standard of ahi@msa; sun@rta, asteya and brahmacaryya are regarded as

virtues as their transgression leads to hi@msa (injury to beings). A milder form of the practice of these virtues is expected from ordinary householders and this is called anubrata (small vows). But those who are struggling for the attainment of emancipation must practise these virtues according to the highest and strictest standard, and this is called mahabrata (great vows). Thus for example brahmacaryya for a householder according to the anubrata standard would be mere cessation from adultery, whereas according to mahabrata it would be absolute abstention from sex-thoughts, sex-words and sex-acts. Ahi@msa according to a householder, according to anubrata, would require abstinence from killing any animals, but according to mahavrata it would entail all the rigour and carefulness to prevent oneself from being the cause of any kind of injury to any living being in any way.

Many other minor duties are imposed upon householders, all of which are based upon the cardinal virtue of ahi@msa. These are (1) _digvirati_ (to carry out activities within a restricted area and thereby desist from injuring living beings in different places), (2) _bhogopabhogamana_ (to desist from drinking liquors, taking flesh, butter, honey, figs, certain other kinds of plants, fruits, and vegetables, to observe certain other kinds of restrictions regarding time and place of taking meals), (3) _anarthada@n@da_ consisting of (a) _apadhyana_ (cessation from inflicting any bodily injuries, killing of one's enemies, etc.), (b) _papopades'a_ (desisting from advising people to take to agriculture which leads to the killing of so many insects), (c) _hi@msopakaridana_ (desisting from giving implements of agriculture to people which will lead to the injury of insects), (d) _pramadacara@na_ (to desist from attending musical parties, theatres, or reading sex-literature, gambling, etc.), (4) _s'ik@sapadabrata_ consisting of (a) _samayikabrata_ (to try to treat all beings equally), (b) des'avakas'ikabrata (gradually to practise the _digviratibrata_ more and more extensively), (c) _po@sadhabrata_

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