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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

Some reap the fruits of the karma done in another life


style="text-align: justify;">(certain other kinds of restriction), (d) _atithisa@mvibhagabrata (to make gifts to guests). All transgressions of these virtues, called _aticara_, should be carefully avoided.

All perception, wisdom, and morals belong to the soul, and to know the soul as possessing these is the right knowledge of the soul. All sorrows proceeding out of want of self-knowledge can be removed only by true self-knowledge. The soul in itself is pure intelligence, and it becomes endowed with the body only on account of its karma. When by meditation, all the karmas are burnt (_dhyanagnidagdhakarma_) the self becomes purified. The soul is itself the sa@msara (the cycle of rebirths) when it is overpowered by the four ka@sayas (passions) and the senses. The four ka@sayas are _krodha_ (anger), _mana_ (vanity and pride), _maya_ (insincerity and the tendency to dupe others), and _lobha_ (greed). These ka@sayas cannot be removed except by a control of the senses; and self-control alone leads to the purity of the mind (_mana@hs'uddhi_). Without the control of the mind no one can proceed in the path of yoga. All our acts become controlled when the mind is controlled, so those who seek emancipation should make every effort to control the mind. No kind of asceticism (_tapas_) can be of any good until the mind is purified. All attachment and antipathy (_ragadvc@sa_) can be removed only by the purification of the mind. It is by attachment and antipathy

that man loses his independence. It is thus necessary for the yogin (sage) that he should be free from them and become independent in the real sense of the term When a man learns to look upon all beings with equality (_samatva_) he can effect such a conquest over raga and dve@sa as one could never do even by the strictest asceticism through millions of years. In order to effect this samatva towards all, we should take to the following kinds of meditation (_bhavana_):

We should think of the transitoriness (_anityata_) of all things, that what a thing was in the morning, it is not at mid-day, what it was at mid-day it is not at night; for all things are transitory and changing. Our body, all our objects of pleasure, wealth and youth all are fleeting like dreams, or cotton particles in a whirlwind.

All, even the gods, are subject to death. All our relatives will by their works fall a prey to death. This world is thus full of misery and there is nothing which can support us in it. Thus in


whatever way we look for anything, on which we can depend, we find that it fails us. This is called as'ara@nabhavana (the meditation of helplessness).

Some are born in this world, some suffer, some reap the fruits of the karma done in another life. We are all different from one another by our surroundings, karma, by our separate bodies and by all other gifts which each of us severally enjoy. To meditate on these aspects is called ekatvabhavana and anyatvabhavana.

To think that the body is made up of defiled things, the flesh, blood, and bones, and is therefore impure is called as'ucibhavana (meditation of the impurity of the body).

To think that if the mind is purified by the thoughts of universal friendship and compassion and the passions are removed, then only will good {_s'ubha_) accrue to me, but if on the contrary I commit sinful deeds and transgress the virtues, then all evil will befall me, is called asravabhavana (meditation of the befalling of evil). By the control of the asrava (inrush of karma) comes the sa@mvara (cessation of the influx of karma) and the destruction of the karmas already accumulated leads to nirjara (decay and destruction of karma matter).

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