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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

2 the coinherence of the causes of a non existent thing


Again

one should think that the practice of the ten dharmas (virtues) of self control (_sa@myama_), truthfulness (_sun@rta_), purity (_s'auca_), chastity (_brahma_), absolute want of greed (_akincanata_), asceticism (_tapas_), forbearance, patience (_ks'anti_), mildness (_mardava_), sincerity (_@rjuta_), and freedom or emancipation from all sins (_mukti_} can alone help us in the achievement of the highest goal. These are the only supports to which we can look. It is these which uphold the world-order. This is called dharmasvakhyatatabhavana.

Again one should think of the Jaina cosmology and also of the nature of the influence of karma in producing all the diverse conditions of men. These two are called _lokabhavana_ and _bodhibhavana_.

When by the continual practice of the above thoughts man becomes unattached to all things and adopts equality to all beings, and becomes disinclined to all worldly enjoyments, then with a mind full of peace he gets rid of all passions, and then he should take to the performance of dhyana or meditation by deep concentration. The samatva or perfect equality of the mind and dhyana are interdependent, so that without dhyana there is no samatva

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and without samatva there is no dhyana. In order to make the mind steady by dhyana one should think of _maitri_ (universal friendship), _pramoda_ (the habit of emphasizing

the good sides of men), _karu@na_ (universal compassion) and _madhyastha_ (indifference to the wickedness of people, i.e. the habit of not taking any note of sinners). The Jaina dhyana consists in concentrating the mind on the syllables of the Jaina prayer phrases. The dhyana however as we have seen is only practised as an aid to making the mind steady and perfectly equal and undisturbed towards all things. Emancipation comes only as the result of the final extinction of the karma materials. Jaina yoga is thus a complete course of moral discipline which leads to the purification of the mind and is hence different from the traditional Hindu yoga of Patanjali or even of the Buddhists [Footnote ref 1].

Jaina Atheism [Footnote ref 2].

The Naiyayikas assert that as the world is of the nature of an effect, it must have been created by an intelligent agent and this agent is Is'vara (God). To this the Jain replies, "What does the Naiyayika mean when he says that the world is of the nature of an effect"? Does he mean by "effect," (1) that which is made up of parts (_savayava_), or, (2) the coinherence of the causes of a non-existent thing, or, (3) that which is regarded by anyone as having been made, or, (4) that which is liable to change (_vikaritvam_). Again, what is meant by being "made up of parts"? If it means existence in parts, then the class-concepts (_samanya_) existing in the parts should also be regarded as effects, and hence destructible, but these the Naiyayikas regard as being partless and eternal. If it means "that which has parts," then even "space" (_akas'a_) has to be regarded as "effect," but the Naiyayika regards it as eternal.

Again "effect" cannot mean "coinherence of the causes of a thing which were previously non-existent," for in that case one could not speak of the world as an effect, for the atoms of the elements of earth, etc., are regarded as eternal.

Again if "effect" means "that which is regarded by anyone as

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[Footnote 1:_Yogas'astra,_ by Hemacandra, edited by Windisch, in _Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morg. Gesellschaft_, Leipsig, 1874, and _Dravyasa@mgraha_, edited by Ghoshal, 1917.]


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