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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

Footnote 2 Ahirbudhnya Sa@mhita


From

the point of view of history of philosophy the Sa@mkhya of Caraka and Pancas'ikha is very important; for it shows a transitional stage of thought between the Upani@sad ideas and the orthodox Sa@mkhya doctrine as represented by Is'varak@r@s@na. On the one hand its doctrine that the senses are material, and that effects are produced only as a result of collocations, and that the puru@sa is unconscious, brings it in close relation with Nyaya, and on the other its connections with Buddhism seem to be nearer than the orthodox Sa@mkhya.

We hear of a _Sa@s@titantras'astra_ as being one of the oldest Sa@mkhya works. This is described in the _Ahirbudhnya Sa@mhita_ as containing two books of thirty-two and twenty-eight chapters [Footnote ref 2]. A quotation from _Rajavarttika_ (a work about which there is no definite information) in Vacaspati Mis'ra's commentary on the Sa@mkhya karika_(72) says that it was called the _@Sa@s@titantra because it dealt with the existence of prak@rti, its oneness, its difference from puru@sas, its purposefulness for puru@sas, the multiplicity of puru@sas, connection and separation from puru@sas, the evolution of

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[Footnote 1: Patanjali's Mahabha@sya, IV. I. 3. _Atisannikar@sadativiprakar@sat murttyantaravyavadhanat tamasav@rtatvat indriyadaurvalyadatipramadat,_ etc. (Benares edition.)]

style="text-align: justify;">[Footnote 2: _Ahirbudhnya Sa@mhita,_ pp. 108, 110.]

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the categories, the inactivity of the puru@sas and the five _viparyyayas_, nine tu@s@tis, the defects of organs of twenty-eight kinds, and the eight siddhis [Footnote ref 1].

But the content of the _Sa@s@titantra_ as given in _Ahirbudhnya Sa@mhita_ is different from it, and it appears from it that the Sa@mkhya of the _Sa@s@titantra_ referred to in the _Ahirbudhnya Sa@mhita_ was of a theistic character resembling the doctrine of the Pancaratra Vai@snavas and the _Ahirbudhnya Sa@mhita_ says that Kapila's theory of Sa@mkhya was a Vai@s@nava one. Vijnana Bhiksu, the greatest expounder of Sa@mkhya, says in many places of his work _Vijnanam@rta Bha@sya_ that Sa@mkhya was originally theistic, and that the atheistic Sa@mkhya is only a _prau@dhivada_ (an exaggerated attempt to show that no supposition of Is'vara is necessary to explain the world process) though the _Mahabharata_ points out that the difference between Sa@mkhya and Yoga is this, that the former is atheistic, while the latter is theistic. The discrepancy between the two accounts of _@Sa@s@titantra_ suggests that the original _Sa@s@titantra_ as referred to in the _Ahirbudhnya Sa@mhita_ was subsequently revised and considerably changed. This supposition is corroborated by the fact that Gu@naratna does not mention among the important Sa@mkhya works _@Sa@s@titantra_ but _@Sa@s@titantroddhara_

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