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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

Vacaspati Mis'ra and Vijnana Bhik@su


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style="text-align: justify;">[Footnote 1: _Tarkarahasyadipika_, p. 109.]

[Footnote 2: _eva@m sa@dvims'akam prahah s'ariramth manavah sa@mkhyam sa@mkhyatmakatvacca kapiladibhirucyate. Matsyapurana_, IV. 28.]

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totality of human psychosis on the other. A systematic explanation of the gunas was attempted in two different lines by Vijnana Bhik@su and the Vai@s@nava writer Ve@nka@ta [Footnote ref l]. As the Yoga philosophy compiled by Patanjali and commented on by Vyasa, Vacaspati and Vijn@ana Bhik@su, agree with the Sa@mkhya doctrine as explained by Vacaspati and Vijnana Bhik@su in most points I have preferred to call them the Kapila and the Patanjala schools of Sa@mkhya and have treated them together--a principle which was followed by Haribhadra in his _@Sa@ddars'anasamuaccaya_.

The other important Sa@mkhya teachers mentioned by Gaudapada are Sanaka, Sananda, Sanatana and Vo@dhu. Nothing is known about their historicity or doctrines.

Sa@mkhya karika, Sa@mkhya sutra, Vacaspati Mis'ra and Vijnana Bhik@su.

A word of explanation is necessary as regards my interpretation of the Sa@mkhya-Yoga system. The _Sa@mkhya karika_ is the oldest Sa@mkhya text on which we have commentaries by later writers. The _Sa@mkhya sutra_ was not referred to by any writer until it was commented upon

by Aniruddha (fifteenth century A.D.). Even Gu@naratna of the fourteenth century A D. who made allusions to a number of Sa@mkhya works, did not make any reference to the _Sa@mkhya sutra_, and no other writer who is known to have flourished before Gu@naratna seems to have made any reference to the _Sa@mkhya sutra_. The natural conclusion therefore is that these sutras were probably written some time after the fourteenth century. But there is no positive evidence to prove that it was so late a work as the fifteenth century. It is said at the end of the _Sa@mkhya karika_ of Is'varak@r@s@na that the karikas give an exposition of the Sa@mkhya doctrine excluding the refutations of the doctrines of other people and excluding the parables attached to the original Sa@mkhya works--the _@Sa@s@titantras'astra_. The _Sa@mkhya sutras_ contain refutations of other doctrines and also a number of parables. It is not improbable that these were collected from some earlier Sa@mkhya work which is now lost to us. It may be that it was done from some later edition of the _@Sa@s@titantras'astra_ (_@Sa@s@titantroddhara_ as mentioned by

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[Footnote 1: Venka@ta's philosophy will be dealt with in the second volume of the present work.]

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