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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

And tarka has been replaced by asana


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style="text-align: justify;">[Footnote 1: Alberuni, in his account of the book of Sa@mkhya, gives a list of commandments which practically is the same as yama and niyama, but it is said that through them one cannot attain salvation.]

[Footnote 2: Cf. the account of _Pas'upatadars'ana_ in _Sarvadas'anasa@mgraha_.]

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also described the book as being very famous at the time, and Bhoja and Cakrapa@ni also probably confused him with Patanjali the grammarian; from this we can fairly assume that this book of Patanjali was probably written by some other Patanjali within the first 300 or 400 years of the Christian era; and it may not be improbable that when _Vyasabha@sya_ quotes in III. 44 as "_iti_ Patanjali@h," he refers to this Patanjali.

The conception of Yoga as we meet it in the Maitraya@na Upani@sad consisted of six a@ngas or accessories, namely pra@nayama, pratyahara, dhyana, dhara@na, tarka and samadhi [Footnote ref 1]. Comparing this list with that of the list in the _Yoga sutras_ we find that two new elements have been added, and tarka has been replaced by asana. Now from the account of the sixty-two heresies given in the _Brahmajala sutta_ we know that there were people who either from meditation of three degrees or through logic and reasoning had come to believe that both the external world as a whole and individual souls were eternal.

From the association of this last mentioned logical school with the Samadhi or Dhyana school as belonging to one class of thinkers called s'as'vatavada, and from the inclusion of tarka as an a@nga in samadhi, we can fairly assume that the last of the a@ngas given in Maitraya@ni Upani@sad represents the oldest list of the Yoga doctrine, when the Sa@mkhya and the Yoga were in a process of being grafted on each other, and when the Sa@mkhya method of discussion did not stand as a method independent of the Yoga. The substitution of asana for tarka in the list of Patanjali shows that the Yoga had developed a method separate from the Sa@mkhya. The introduction of ahi@msa (non-injury), satya (truthfulness), asteya (want of stealing), brahmacaryya (sex-control), aparigraha (want of greed) as yama and s'auca (purity), santo@sa (contentment) as niyama, as a system of morality without which Yoga is deemed impossible (for the first time in the sutras), probably marks the period when the disputes between the Hindus and the Buddhists had not become so keen. The introduction of maitri, karu@na, mudita, upek@sa is also equally significant, as we do not find them mentioned in such a prominent form in any other literature of the Hindus dealing with the subject of emancipation. Beginning from the _Acara@ngasutra, Uttaradhyayanasutra_,

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[Footnote 1: _pra@nayamah pratyaharah dhyanam dhara@na tarkah samadhih sa@da@nga ityucyate yoga_ (Maitr. 6 8).]

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