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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

Unlike the Jaina soul possessing anantajnana


The Sa@mkhya and the Yoga Doctrine of Soul or Puru@sa.

The Sa@mkhya philosophy as we have it now admits two principles, souls and _prak@rti_, the root principle of matter. Souls are many, like the Jaina souls, but they are without parts and qualities. They do not contract or expand according as they occupy a smaller or a larger body, but are always all-pervasive, and are not contained in the bodies in which they are manifested. But the relation between body or rather the mind associated with it and soul is such that whatever mental phenomena happen in the mind are interpreted as the experience of its soul. The souls are many, and had it not been so (the Sa@mkhya argues) with the birth of one all would have been born and with the death of one all would have died [Footnote ref 2].

The exact nature of soul is however very difficult of comprehension, and yet it is exactly this which one must thoroughly grasp in order to understand the Sa@mkhya philosophy. Unlike the Jaina soul possessing _anantajnana, anantadars'ana, anantasukha_, and _anantaviryya_, the Sa@mkhya soul is described as being devoid of any and every characteristic; but its nature is absolute pure consciousness (_cit_). The Sa@mkhya view differs from the Vedanta, firstly in this that it does not consider the soul to be of the nature of pure intelligence and bliss (_ananda_) [Footnote ref 3]. Bliss with Sa@mkhya is but another name for pleasure and as

such it belongs to prak@rti and does not constitute the nature of soul; secondly, according to Vedanta the individual souls (_Jiva_) are

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[Footnote 1: See S.N. Das Gupta, _Yoga Philosophy in relation to other Indian systems of thought,_ ch. II. The most important point in favour of this identification seems to be that both the Patanjalis as against the other Indian systems admitted the doctrine of _spho@ta_ which was denied even by Sa@mkhya. On the doctrine of Spho@ta see my _Study of Patanjali_, Appendix I.]

[Footnote 2: _Karika_, 18.]

[Footnote 3: See Citsukha's _Tattvapradipika,_ IV.]

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but illusory manifestations of one soul or pure consciousness the Brahman, but according to Sa@mkhya they are all real and many.

The most interesting feature of Sa@mkhya as of Vedanta is the analysis of knowledge. Sa@mkhya holds that our knowledge of things are mere ideational pictures or images. External things are indeed material, but the sense data and images of the mind, the coming and going of which is called knowledge, are also in some sense matter-stuff, since they are limited in their nature like the external things. The sense-data and images come and go, they are often the prototypes, or photographs of external things, and as such ought to be considered as in some sense material, but the matter of which


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