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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

He distinctly identifies Nyayavidya with Anvik@siki


Nyaya and Vais'e@sika sutras.

It is very probable that the earliest beginnings of Nyaya are to be found in the disputations and debates amongst scholars trying to find out the right meanings of the Vedic texts for use in sacrifices and also in those disputations which took place between the adherents of different schools of thought trying to defeat one another. I suppose that such disputations occurred in the days of the Upani@sads, and the art of disputation was regarded even then as a subject of study, and it probably passed then by the name _vakovakya_. Mr Bodas has pointed out that Apastamba who according to Buehler lived before the third century B.C. used the word Nyaya in the sense of Mima@msa [Footnote ref 1]. The word Nyaya derived

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[Footnote 1 _Apastamba,_ trans. by Buehler, Introduction, p. XXVII., and Bodas's article on the _Historical Survey of Indian Logic_ in the Bombay Branch of J.R.A.S., vol. XIX.]

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from the root _ni_ is sometimes explained as that by which sentences and words could be interpreted as having one particular meaning and not another, and on the strength of this even Vedic accents of words (which indicate the meaning of compound words by pointing out the particular kind of compound in which the words entered

into combination) were called Nyaya [Footnote ref 1]. Prof. Jacobi on the strength of Kau@tilya's enumeration of the _vidya_ (sciences) as Anvik@siki (the science of testing the perceptual and scriptural knowledge by further scrutiny), _trayi_ (the three Vedas), _vartta_ (the sciences of agriculture, cattle keeping etc.), and _da@n@daniti_ (polity), and the enumeration of the philosophies as Sa@mkhya, Yoga, Lokayata and Anvik@siki, supposes that the _Nyaya sutra_ was not in existence in Kau@tilya's time 300 B.C.) [Footnote ref 2]. Kau@tilya's reference to Nyaya as Anvik@siki only suggests that the word Nyaya was not a familiar name for Anvik@siki in Kau@tilya's time. He seems to misunderstand Vatsyayana in thinking that Vatsyayana distinguishes Nyaya from the Anvik@siki in holding that while the latter only means the science of logic the former means logic as well as metaphysics. What appears from Vatsyayana's statement in _Nyaya sutra_ I.i. 1 is this that he points out that the science which was known in his time as Nyaya was the same as was referred to as Anvik@siki by Kau@tilya. He distinctly identifies Nyayavidya with Anvik@siki, but justifies the separate enumeration of certain logical categories such as _sa@ms'aya_ (doubt) etc., though these were already contained within the first two terms _prama@na_ (means of cognition) and _prameya_ (objects of cognition), by holding that unless these its special and separate branches (_p@rthakprasthana_) were treated, Nyayavidya would simply become metaphysics (_adhyatmavidya_) like the Upani@sads. The old meaning of Nyaya as the means of determining the right meaning or the right thing is also agreed upon by Vatsyayana and is sanctioned by Vacaspati in his _Nyayavarttikatatparya@tika_ I.i. 1). He compares the meaning of the word Nyaya (_prama@nairarthaparik@sa@nam_--to scrutinize an object by means of logical proof) with the etymological meaning of the word anvik@siki (to scrutinize anything after it has been known by perception and scriptures). Vatsyayana of course points out that so far as this logical side of Nyaya is concerned it has the widest scope for


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