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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

279thinks that the sutras underwent two additions


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style="text-align: justify;">[Footnote 1: Kalidasa's _Kumarasambhava "Udghato pra@navayasam nyayaistribhirudira@nam_," also Mallinatha's gloss on it.]

[Footnote 2: Prof. Jacobi's "_The early history of Indian Philosophy," Indian Antiquary_, 1918.]

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itself as it includes all beings, all their actions, and all the sciences [Footnote ref 1]. He quotes Kau@tilya to show that in this capacity Nyaya is like light illumining all sciences and is the means of all works. In its capacity as dealing with the truths of metaphysics it may show the way to salvation. I do not dispute Prof. Jacobi's main point that the metaphysical portion of the work was a later addition, for this seems to me to be a very probable view. In fact Vatsyayana himself designates the logical portion as a p@rthakprasthana (separate branch). But I do not find that any statement of Vatsyayana or Kau@tilya can justify us in concluding that this addition was made after Kau@tilya. Vatsyayana has no doubt put more stress on the importance of the logical side of the work, but the reason of that seems to be quite obvious, for the importance of metaphysics or _adhyatmavidya_ was acknowledged by all. But the importance of the mere logical side would not appeal to most people. None of the dharmas'astras (religious scriptures) or the Vedas would lend any support to it, and Vatsyayana had to seek the support of Kau@tilya in

the matter as the last resource. The fact that Kau@tilya was not satisfied by counting Anvik@siki as one of the four vidyas but also named it as one of the philosophies side by side with Sa@mkhya seems to lead to the presumption that probably even in Kau@tilya's time Nyaya was composed of two branches, one as adhyatmavidya and another as a science of logic or rather of debate. This combination is on the face of it loose and external, and it is not improbable that the metaphysical portion was added to increase the popularity of the logical part, which by itself might not attract sufficient attention. Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasada S'astri in an article in the _Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society_ 1905 says that as Vacaspati made two attempts to collect the _Nyaya sutras_, one as _Nyayasuci_ and the other as _Nyayasutroddhara_, it seems that even in Vacaspati's time he was not certain as to the authenticity of many of the _Nyaya sutras_. He further points out that there are unmistakable signs that many of the sutras were interpolated, and relates the Buddhist tradition from China and Japan that Mirok mingled Nyaya and Yoga. He also

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[Footnote 1: _Yena prayukta@h pravarttate tat prayojanam_ (that by which one is led to act is called _prayojanam_); _yamartham abhipsan jihasan va karma arabhate tenanena sarve pra@nina@h sarva@ni karma@ni sarvas'ca vidya@h vyapta@h tadas'rayas'ca nyaya@h pravarttate_ (all those which one tries to have or to fly from are called prayojana, therefore all beings, all their actions, and all sciences, are included within prayojana, and all these depend on Nyaya). _Vatsyayana bhas'ya_, I.i. 1.]

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thinks that the sutras underwent two additions, one at the hands of some Buddhists and another at the hands of some Hindu who put in Hindu arguments against the Buddhist ones. These suggestions of this learned scholar seem to be very probable, but we have no clue by which we can ascertain the time when such additions were made. The fact that there are unmistakable proofs of the interpolation of many of the sutras makes the fixing of the date of the original part of the _Nyaya sutras_ still more difficult, for the Buddhist references can hardly be of any help, and Prof. Jacobi's attempt to fix the date of the _Nyaya sutras_ on the basis of references to S'unyavada naturally loses its value, except on the supposition that all references to S'unyavada must be later than Nagarjuna, which is not correct, since the _Mahayana sutras_ written before Nagarjuna also held the S'unyavada doctrine.


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