free ebooks

A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

May be an apta reliable authority


is defined as the testimony of reliable authority (apta) [Footnote ref 2].


[Footnote 1: This is a brief summary of the doctrines found in _Nyaya sutras_, supplemented here and there with the views of Vatsyayana, the commentator. This follows the order of the sutras, and tries to present their ideas with as little additions from those of later day Nyaya as possible. The general treatment of Nyaya-Vais'e@sika expounds the two systems in the light of later writers and commentators.]

[Footnote 2: It is curious to notice that Vatsyayana says that an arya, a @r@si or a mleccha (foreigner), may be an apta (reliable authority).]


Such a testimony may tell us about things which may be experienced and which are beyond experience. Objects of knowledge are said to be self (_atman_), body, senses, sense-objects, understanding (_buddhi_), mind (_manas_}, endeavour (prav@rtti), rebirths, enjoyment of pleasure and suffering of pain, sorrow and salvation. Desire, antipathy, effort (_prayatna_), pleasure, pain, and knowledge indicate the existence of the self. Body is that which upholds movement, the senses and the rise of pleasure and pain as arising out of the contact of sense with sense-objects [Footnote ref l]; the five senses are derived from the five

elements, such as prthivi, ap, tejas, vayu and akas'a; smell, taste, colour, touch, and sound are the qualities of the above five elements, and these are also the objects of the senses. The fact that many cognitions cannot occur at any one moment indicates the existence of mind (_manas_). Endeavour means what is done by speech, understanding, and body. Do@sas (attachment, antipathy, etc) are those which lead men to virtue and vice. Pain is that which causes suffering [Footnote ref 2]. Ultimate cessation from pain is called _apavarga_ [Footnote ref 3]. Doubt arises when through confusion of similar qualities or conflicting opinions etc., one wants to settle one of the two alternatives. That for attaining which, or for giving up which one sets himself to work is called _prayojana_.

Illustrative example (_d@r@s@tanta_) is that on which both the common man and the expert (_parik@saka_) hold the same opinion. Established texts or conclusions (_siddhanta_) are of four kinds, viz (1) those which are accepted by all schools of thought called the _sarvatantrasiddhanta_; (2) those which are held by one school or similar schools but opposed by others called the _pratitantrasiddhanta_; (3) those which being accepted other conclusions will also naturally follow called _adhikara@nasiddhanta_; (4) those of the opponent's views which are uncritically granted by a debater, who proceeds then to refute the consequences that follow and thereby show his own special skill and bring the opponent's intellect to disrepute (_abhyupagamasiddhanta_) [Footnote ref 4]. The premisses are five:


eBook Search
Social Sharing
Share Button
About us is a collection of free ebooks that can be read online. Ebooks are split into pages for easier reading and better bookmarking.

We have more than 35,000 free books in our collection and are adding new books daily.

We invite you to link to us, so as many people as possible can enjoy this wonderful free website.

© 2010-2013 - All Rights Reserved.

Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | Contact Us