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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

Nyaya sutras and Vais'e@sika sutras


whole of the fifth book which seems to be a later addition is devoted to the enumeration of different kinds of refutations (_nigrahasthana_) and futilities (_jati_).

Caraka, Nyaya sutras and Vais'e@sika sutras.

When we compare the _Nyaya sutras_ with the _Vais'e@sika sutras_ we find that in the former two or three differentstreams of purposes have met, whereas the latter is much more homogeneous. The large amount of materials relating to debates treated as a practical art for defeating an opponent would lead one to suppose that it was probably originally compiled from some other existing treatises which were used by Hindus and Buddhists alike for rendering themselves fit to hold their own in debates with their opponents [Footnote ref 2]. This assumption is justified when


[Footnote 1: Vatsyayana notes that this is the salvation of him who has known Brahman, IV. i. 63.]

[Footnote 2: A reference to the _Suvar@naprabhasa sutra_ shows that the Buddhist missionaries used to get certain preparations for improving their voice in order to be able to argue with force, and they took to the worship of Sarasvati (goddess of learning), who they supposed would help them in bringing readily before their mind all the information

and ideas of which they stood so much in need at the time of debates.]


we compare the futilities (jati) quibbles (chala), etc., relating to disputations as found in the _Nyaya sutra_ with those that are found in the medical work of Caraka (78 A.D.), III. viii. There are no other works in early Sanskrit literature, excepting the _Nyaya sutra_ and _Caraka-sa@mhita_ which have treated of these matters. Caraka's description of some of the categories (e.g. d@r@s@tanta, prayojana, pratijna and vita@n@da) follows very closely the definitions given of those in the _Nyaya sutras_. There are others such as the definitions of jalpa, chala, nigrahasthana, etc., where the definitions of two authorities differ more. There are some other logical categories mentioned in Caraka (e.g. _prati@s@thapana, jijnasa, vyavasaya, vakyado@sa, vakyapras'a@msa, upalambha, parihara, abhyanujna_, etc.) which are not found in the _Nyaya sutra_ [Footnote ref 1]. Again, the various types of futilities (jati) and points of opponent's refutation (nigrahasthana) mentioned in the _Nyaya sutra_ are not found in _Caraka_. There are some terms which are found in slightly variant forms in the two works, e.g. _aupamya_ in _Caraka, upamana_ in _Nyaya sutra, arthapatti_ in _Nyaya sutra_ and _arthaprapti_ in _Caraka_. Caraka does not seem to know anything about the Nyaya work on this subject, and it is plain that the treatment of these terms of disputations in the _Caraka_ is much simpler and less technical than what we find in the _Nyaya sutras_. If we leave out the varieties of jati and nigrahasthana of the fifth book, there is on the whole a great agreement between the treatment of Caraka and that of the _Nyaya sutras_. It seems therefore in a high degree probable that both Caraka and the _Nyaya sutras_ were indebted for their treatment of these terms of disputation to some other earlier work. Of these, Caraka's compilation was earlier, whereas the compilation of the _Nyaya sutras_ represents a later work when a hotter atmosphere of disputations had necessitated the use of more technical terms which are embodied in this work, but which were not contained in the earlier work. It does not seem therefore that this part of the work could have been earlier than the second century A.D. Another stream flowing through the _Nyaya sutras_ is that of a polemic against the doctrines which could be attributed to the Sautrantika Buddhists, the Vijnanavada Buddhists, the nihilists, the Sa@mkhya, the Carvaka, and some other unknown schools of thought to which we find no

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