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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

But he discusses the Nyaya views quite independently


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style="text-align: justify;">[Footnote 1: The bha@sya of Pras'astapada can hardly he called a bha@sya (elaborate commentary). He himself makes no such claim and calls his work a compendium of the properties of the categories (_Padarthadharmasa@mgraha_). He takes the categories of _dravya, gu@na, karma, samanya, vis'e@sa_ and _samavaya_ in order and without raising any discussions plainly narrates what he has got to say on them. Some of the doctrines which are important in later Nyaya-Vais'e@sika discussions, such as the doctrine of creation and dissolution, doctrine of number, the theory that the number of atoms contributes to the atomic measure of the molecules, the doctrine of pilupaka in connection with the transformation of colours by heat occur in his narration for the first time as the _Vais'e@sika sutras_ are silent on these points. It is difficult to ascertain his date definitely; he is the earliest writer on Vais'e@sika available to us after Ka@nada and it is not improbable that he lived in the 5th or 6th century A.D.]

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been definitely settled, but there is reason to believe that he lived some time in the beginning of the fourth century A.D. Jacobi places him in 300 A.D. Udyotakara (about 635 A.D.) wrote a _Varttika_ on Vatsyayana's bha@sya to establish the Nyaya views and to refute the criticisms of the Buddhist logician Di@nnaga (about 500 A.D.) in his _Prama@nasamuccaya_. Vacaspatimis'ra (840

A.D.) wrote a sub-commentary on the _Nyayavarttika_ of Udyotakara called _Nyayavarttikatatparya@tika_ in order to make clear the right meanings of Udyotakara's _Varttika_ which was sinking in the mud as it were through numerous other bad writings (_dustarakunibandhapa@nkamagnanam_). Udayana (984 A.D.) wrote a sub-commentary on the _Tatparya@tika_ called _Tatparya@tikaparis'uddhi_. Varddhamana (1225 A.D.) wrote a sub-commentary on that called the _Nyayanibandhaprakas'a_. Padmanabha wrote a sub-commentary on that called _Varddhamanendu_ and S'a@nkara Mis'ra (1425 A.D.) wrote a sub-commentary on that called the _Nyayatatparyama@n@dana_. In the seventeenth century Vis'vanatha wrote an independent short commentary known as _Vis'vanathav@rtti_, on the _Nyaya sutra_, and Radhamohana wrote a separate commentary on the _Nyaya sutras_ known as _Nyayasutravivara@na_. In addition to these works on the _Nyaya sutras_ many other independent works of great philosophical value have been written on the Nyaya system. The most important of these in medieval times is the _Nyayamanjari_ of Jayanta (880 A.D.), who flourished shortly after Vacaspatimis'ra. Jayanta chooses some of the _Nyaya sutras_ for interpretation, but he discusses the Nyaya views quite independently, and criticizes the views of other systems of Indian thought of his time. It is far more comprehensive than Vacaspati's _Tatparya@tika_, and its style is most delightfully lucid. Another important work is Udayana's _Kusumanjali_ in which he tries to prove the existence of Is'vara (God). This work ought to be read with its commentary _Prakas'a_ by Varddhamana (1225 A.D.) and its sub-commentary _Makaranda_ by Rucidatta (1275 A.D.). Udayana's _Atmatattvaviveka_ is a polemical work against the Buddhists, in which he tries to establish the Nyaya doctrine of soul. In addition to these we have a number of useful works on Nyaya in later times. Of these the following deserve special mention in connection with the present work. _Bha@sapariccheda_ by Vis'vanatha with its commentaries _Muktavali, Dinakari_ and _Ramarudri, Tarkasamgraha_ with _Nyayanir@naya, Tarkabka@sa_ of Kes'ava Mis'ra with


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