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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

For a bibliography of Jain and Buddhist Logic


is interesting to notice that between the _Vatsyayana bha@sya_ and the Udyotakara's _Varttika_ no Hindu work on logic of importance seems to have been written: it appears that the science of logic in this period was in the hands of the Jains and the Buddhists; and it was Di@nnaga's criticism of Hindu Nyaya that roused Udyotakara to write the _Varttika_. The Buddhist and the Jain method of treating logic separately from metaphysics as an independent study was not accepted by the Hindus till we come to Ga@nges'a, and there is probably only one Hindu work of importance on Nyaya in the Buddhist style namely _Nyayasara_ of Bhasarvajna. Other older Hindu works generally treated of


[Footnote 1: See _Indian Logic Medieval School_, by Dr S.C. Vidyabhu@sa@na, for a bibliography of Jain and Buddhist Logic.]


inference only along with metaphysical and other points of Nyaya interest [Footnote ref 1].

The main doctrine of the Nyaya-Vais'e@sika Philosophy [Footnote ref 2].

The Nyaya-Vais'e@sika having dismissed the doctrine of momentariness took a common-sense view of things, and held that things remain permanent until suitable collocations so arrange themselves that the thing can be destroyed. Thus the jug continues

to remain a jug unless or until it is broken to pieces by the stroke of a stick. Things exist not because they can produce an impression on us, or serve my purposes either directly or through knowledge, as the Buddhists suppose, but because existence is one of their characteristics. If I or you or any other perceiver did not exist, the things would continue to exist all the same. Whether they produce any effect on us or on their surrounding environments is immaterial. Existence is the most general characteristic of things, and it is on account of this that things are testified by experience to be existing.

As the Nyaya-Vais'e@sikas depended solely on experience and on valid reasons, they dismissed the Sa@mkhya cosmology, but accepted the atomic doctrine of the four elements (_bhutas_), earth (_k@siti_), water (_ap_), fire (_tejas_), and air (_marut_). These atoms are eternal; the fifth substance (_akas'a_) is all pervasive and eternal. It is regarded as the cause of propagating sound; though all-pervading and thus in touch with the ears of all persons, it manifests sound only in the ear-drum, as it is only there that it shows itself as a sense-organ and manifests such sounds as the man deserves to hear by reason of his merit and demerit. Thus a deaf man though he has the akas'a as his sense of hearing, cannot hear on account of his demerit which impedes the faculty of that sense organ [Footnote ref 3]. In addition to these they admitted the existence of time (_kala_) as extending from the past through the present to the


[Footnote 1: Almost all the books on Nyaya and Vais'e@sika referred to have been consulted in the writing of this chapter. Those who want to be acquainted with a fuller bibliography of the new school of logic should refer to the paper called "The History of Navya Nyaya in Bengal," by Mr. Cakravartti in _J.A.S.B._ 1915.]

[Footnote 2: I have treated Nyaya and Vais'e@sika as the same system. Whatever may have been their original differences, they are regarded since about 600 A.D. as being in complete agreement except in some minor points. The views of one system are often supplemented by those of the other. The original character of the two systems has already been treated.]

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