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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

The Yoga and the Vai@s@nava doctrines


Ha@msa, 18 Aru@nika, 19 Garbha,

20 Naraya@na, 21 Naraya@na, 22 Paramaha@msa, 23 Brahma, 24 Am@rtanada, 25 Atharvas'iras, 26 Atharvas'ikha, 27 Maitraya@ni, 28 B@rhajjabala, 29 N@rsi@mhapurvatapini, 30 N@rsi@mhottaratapini, 31 Kalagnirudra, 32 Subala, 33 K@surika, 34 Yantrika, 35 Sarvasara, 36 Niralamba, 37 S'ukarahasya, 38 Vajrasucika, 39 Tejobindu, 40 Nadabindu, 41 Dhyanabindu, 42 Brahmavidya, 43 Yogatattva, 44 Atmabodha, 45 Naradaparivrajaka, 46 Tris'ikhibrahma@na, 47 Sita, 48 Yogacu@dama@ni, 49 Nirvana, 50 Ma@ndalabrahma@na, 51 Dak@si@namurtti, 52 S'arabha, 53 Skanda, 54 Tripadvibhutimahanarya@na, 55 Advayataraka, 56 Ramarahasya, 57 Ramapurvatapini, 58 Ramottaratapini, 59 Vasudeva, 60 Mudgala, 61 Sa@n@dilya, 62 Pai@ngala, 63 Bhik@suka, Maha, 65 S'ariraka, 66 Yogas'ikha, 67 Turiyatita, 68 Sa@mnyasa, 69 Paramaha@msaparivrajaka, 70 Ak@samala, 71 Avyakta, 72 Ekak@sara, 73 Annapurna, 74 Surya, 75 Aksi, 76 Adhyatma, 77 Ku@n@dika, 78 Savitri, 79 Atman, 80 Pa'supatabrahma, 81 Parabrahma, 82 Avadhuta, 83 Tripurarapini, 84 Devi, 85 Tripura, 86 Ka@tharudra, 87 Bhavana, 88 Rudrah@rdaya, 89 Yogaku@n@dali, 90 Bhasmajabala, 91 Rudrak@sajabala, 92 Ga@napati, 93 Jabaladars'ana, 94 Taiasara, 95 Mahavakya, 96 Paficabrahma, 97 Pra@nagnihotra, 98 Gopalapurvatapini, 99 Gopalottaratapini, 100 K@r@s@na, 101 Yajnavalkya, 102 Varaha, 103 S'athyayaniya, 104 Hayagriva, 105 Dattatreya, 106 Garu@da, 107 Kalisantara@na, 108 Jabali, 109 Saubhagyalak@smi, 110 Sarasvatirahasya, 111 Bahvrca, 112 Muktika.

The

collection of Upani@sads translated by Dara shiko, Aurangzeb's brother, contained 50 Upani@sads. The Muktika Upani@sad gives a list of 108 Upani@sads. With the exception of the first 13 Upani@sads most of them are of more or less later date. The Upani@sads dealt with in this chapter are the earlier ones. Amongst the later ones there are some which repeat the purport of these, there are others which deal with the S'aiva, S'akta, the Yoga and the Vai@s@nava doctrines. These will be referred to in connection with the consideration of those systems in Volume II. The later Upani@sads which only repeat the purport of those dealt with in this chapter do not require further mention. Some of the later Upani@sads were composed even as late as the fourteenth or the fifteenth century.]

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process of development and they were probably regarded as parts of one literature, in spite of the differences in their subject-matter. Deussen supposes that the principle of this division was to be found in this, that the Brahma@nas were intended for the householders, the Ara@nyakas for those who in their old age withdrew into the solitude of the forests and the Upani@sads for those who renounced the world to attain ultimate salvation by meditation. Whatever might be said about these literary classifications the ancient philosophers of India looked upon the Upani@sads as being of an entirely different type from the rest of the Vedic literature as dictating the path of knowledge (_jnana-marga_) as opposed to the path of works (_karma-marga_) which forms the content of the latter. It is not out of place here to mention that the orthodox Hindu view holds that whatever may be written in the Veda is to be interpreted as commandments to perform certain actions (_vidhi_)


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