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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

Wrote a commentary called Nyayanir@naya


style="text-align: justify;">[Footnote 1: See _Nyayaratnamala_, svata@h-prama@nya-nir@naya.]

[Footnote 2: See _Nyayamanjari_ on Prama@na, _S'lokavarttika_ on Pratyak@sa, and Gaga Bha@t@ta's _Bha@t@tacintama@ni_ on Pratyak@sa.]


uncontradicted experience. But no enquiry was made whether any absolute judgments about the ultimate truth of knowledge and matter could be made at all. That which appeared was regarded as the real. But the question was not asked, whether there was anything which could be regarded as absolute truth, the basis of all appearance, and the unchangeable, reality. This philosophical enquiry had the most wonderful charm for the Hindu mind.

Vedanta Literature.

It is difficult to ascertain the time when the _Brahma-sutras_ were written, but since they contain a refutation of almost all the other Indian systems, even of the S'unyavada Buddhism (of course according to S'a@nkara's interpretation), they cannot have been written very early. I think it may not be far from the truth in supposing that they were written some time in the second century B.C. About the period 780 A.D. Gau@dapada revived the monistic teaching of the Upani@sads by his commentary on the Ma@n@dukya Upani@sad in verse called _Ma@n@dukyakarika_. His disciple Govinda was the teacher of S'a@nkara (788--820 A.D.). S'a@nkara's

commentary on the _Brahma-sutras_ is the root from which sprang forth a host of commentaries and studies on Vedantism of great originality, vigour, and philosophic insight. Thus Anandagiri, a disciple of S'a@nkara, wrote a commentary called _Nyayanir@naya_, and Govindananda wrote another commentary named _Ratna-prabha_. Vacaspati Mis'ra, who flourished about 841 A.D., wrote another commentary on it called the _Bhamati._ Amalananda (1247--1260 A.D.) wrote his _Kalpataru_ on it, and Apyayadik@sita (1550 A.D.) son of Ra@ngarajadhvarindra of Kanci wrote his _Kalpataruparimala_ on the _Kalpataru._ Another disciple of S'a@nkara, Padmapada, also called Sanandana, wrote a commentary on it known as _Pancapadika_. From the manner in which the book is begun one would expect that it was to be a running commentary on the whole of S'a@nkara's bhasya, but it ends abruptly at the end of the fourth sutra. Madhava (1350), in his _S'a@nkaravijaya,_ recites an interesting story about it. He says that Sures'vara received S'a@nkara's permission to write a varttika on the bhasya. But other pupils objected to S'a@nkara that since Sures'vara was formerly a great Mima@msist (Ma@n@dana Misra was called Sures'vara after his conversion to Vedantism) he was not competent to write


a good _varttika_ on the bha@sya. Sures'vara, disappointed, wrote a treatise called _Nai@skarmyasiddhi._ Padmapada wrote a @tika but this was burnt in his uncle's house. S'a@nkara, who had once seen it, recited it from memory and Padmapada wrote it down. Prakas'atman (1200) wrote a commentary on Padmapada's _Pancapadika_ known as _Pancapadikavivara@na. _Akha@n@dananda wrote his _Tattvadipana,_ and the famous N@rsi@mhas'rama Muni (1500)

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