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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

Footnote 5 Gau@dapada's karika


style="text-align: justify;">[Footnote 1: S'a@nkara's bha@sya on Gau@dapada's karika, Anandas'rama edition, p. 214.]

[Footnote 2: Anandas'rama edition of S'a@nkara's bha@sya on Gau@dapada's karika, p. 21.]

[Footnote 3: Telang wishes to put S'a@nkara's date somewhere in the 8th century, and Ve@nkates'vara would have him in 805 A.D.-897 A.D., as he did not believe that S'a@nkara could have lived only for 32 years. _J.R.A.S._ 1916.]

[Footnote 4: Compare _Lankavatara_, p. 29, _Katha@m ca gaganopamam_.]

[Footnote 5: Gau@dapada's karika, IV. 2, 4.]


Again, in IV. 42 he says that it was for those realists (_vastuvadi_), who since they found things and could deal with them and were afraid of non-being, that the Buddhas had spoken of origination (_jati_). In IV. 90 he refers to _agrayana_ which we know to be a name of _Mahayana_. Again, in IV. 98 and 99 he says that all appearances are pure and vacuous by nature. These the Buddhas, the emancipated one (_mukta_) and the leaders know first. It was not said by the Buddha that all appearances (_dharma_) were knowledge. He then closes the karikas with an adoration which in all probability also refers to the Buddha [Footnote ref 1].

Gau@dapada's work is divided into four chapters: (i) Agama (scripture),

(2) Vaitathya (unreality), (3) Advaita (unity), (4) Alatas'anti (the extinction of the burning coal). The first chapter is more in the way of explaining the Ma@n@dukya Upani@sad by virtue of which the entire work is known as _Ma@n@dukyakarika_. The second, third, and fourth chapters are the constructive parts of Gau@dapada's work, not particularly connected with the Ma@n@dukya Upani@sad.

In the first chapter Gau@dapada begins with the three apparent manifestations of the self: (1) as the experiencer of the external world while we are awake (_vis'va_ or _vais'vanara atma_), (2) as the experiencer in the dream state (_taijasa atma_), (3) as the experiencer in deep sleep (_su@supti_), called the _prajna_ when there is no determinate knowledge, but pure consciousness and pure bliss (_ananda_). He who knows these three as one is never attached to his experiences. Gau@dapada then enumerates some theories of creation: some think that the world has proceeded as a creation from the pra@na (vital activity), others consider creation as an expansion (_vibhuti_) of that cause from which it has proceeded; others imagine that creation is like dream (_svapna_) and magic (_maya_); others, that creation proceeds simply by the will of the Lord; others that it proceeds from time; others that it is for the enjoyment of the Lord (_bhogartham_) or for his play only (_kri@dartham_), for such is the nature (_svabhava_) of the Lord, that he creates, but he cannot have any longing, as all his desires are in a state of fulfilment.


[Footnote 1: Gau@dapada's karika IV. 100. In my translation I have not followed S'a@nkara, for he has I think tried his level best to explain away even the most obvious references to Buddha and Buddhism in Gau@dapada's karika. I have, therefore, drawn my meaning directly as Gau@dapada's karikas seemed to indicate. I have followed the same principle in giving the short exposition of Gau@dapada's philosophy below.]

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