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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

Footnote 3 Compare Nagarjuna's karika


In

the third chapter Gau@dapada says that truth is like the void(_akas'a_) which is falsely concieved as taking part in birth and death, coming and going and as existing in all bodies; but howsoever it be conceived, it is all the while not different from akas'a. All things that appear as compounded are but dreams (_svapna_) and maya (magic). Duality is a distinction imposed upon the one (_advaita_) by maya. The truth is immortal, it cannot therefore by its own nature suffer change. It has no birth. All birth and death, all this manifold is but the result of an imposition of maya upon it [Footnote ref 3]. One mind appears as many in the dream, as also in the waking state one appears as many, but when the mind activity of the Togins (sages) is stopped arises this fearless state, the extinction of all sorrow, final ceasation. Thinking everything to be misery (_du@hkham sarvam anusm@rtya_) one should stop all desires and enjoyments, and thinking that nothing has any birth he should not see any production at all. He should awaken the mind (_citta_) into its final dissolution (_laya_) and pacify it when distracted; he should not move it towards diverse objects when it stops. He should not taste any pleasure (_sukham_) and by wisdom remain unattached, by strong effort making it motionless and still. When he neither passes into dissolution nor into distraction; when there is no sign, no appearance that is the perfect Brahman. When there is no object of knowledge to come into being, the unproduced
is then called the omniscent (_sarvajna_).

In the fourth chapter, called the Alats'anti, Gau@dapada further

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[Footnote 1: Compare _Madhyamikakarika, _B.T.S._, p.3 _anekartham ananartham_, etc.]

[Footnote 2: Compare _Lankavatarasutra_, p.78, _Advayasamsaraparinirva@nvatsarvadharma@h tasmat tarhi mahamate S'unyatanutpadadvayani@hsvabhavalak@sa@ne yoga@h kara@niya@h_; also 8,46, _Yaduta svacittavi@sayavikalpad@r@s@tyanavabodhanat vijnananam svacittad@r@s@tyamatranavatare@na mahamate valaprthagjana@h bhavabhavasvabhavaparamarthad@r@s@tidvayvadino bhavanti_.]

[Footnote 3: Compare Nagarjuna's karika, _B.T.S._ p. 196, _Akas'am s'as'as'@r@nganca bandhyaya@h putra eva ca asantas'cabhivyajyante tathabhavena kalpana_, with Gau@dapada's karika, III. 28, _Asato mayaya janma tatvato naiva jayate bandhyaputro na tattvena mayaya vapi jayate_.]

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describes this final state [Footnote ref l]. All the dharmas (appearances) are without death or decay [Footnote: ref 2]. Gau@dapada then follows a dialectical form of argument which reminds us of Nagarjuna. Gau@dapada continues thus: Those who regard kara@na (cause) as the karyya (effect in a potential form) cannot consider the cause as truly unproduced (_aja_), for it suffers production; how can it be called eternal and yet changing? If it is said that things come into being from that which has no production, there is no example with which such a case may be illustrated. Nor can we consider that anything is born from that which has itself


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