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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

Coming to bhava which determines jati


go back to the chain of twelve causes, we find that jati (birth) is the cause of decay and death, _jaramara@na_, etc. Jati is the appearance of the body or the totality of the five skandhas [Footnote ref 4]. Coming to bhava which determines jati, I cannot think of any better rational explanation of bhava, than that I have already


[Footnote 1: Warren's _Buddhism in Translations_, p. 182, _Milinda Panha_ (628).]

[Footnote 2: _Atthasalini_, p. 112...]

[Footnote 3: _Ibid._ p. 113, _Yatha hi rupadini upadaya pannatta suriyadayo na atthato rupadihi anne honti ten' eva yasmin samaye suriyo udeti tasmin samaye tassa teja-sa@nkhatam rupa@m piti eva@m vuccamane pi na rupadihi anno suriyo nama atthi. Tatha cittam phassadayo dhamme upadaya pannapiyati. Atthato pan' ettha tehi annam eva. Tena yasmin samaye cittam uppanna@m hoti eka@msen eva tasmin samaye phassadihi atthato annad eva hoti ti_.]

[Footnote 4: "_Jatirdehajanma pancaskandhasamudaya@h,_" Govindananda's _Ratnaprabha_ on S'a@nkara's bha@sya, II. ii. 19.]


suggested, namely, the works (_karma_) which produce the birth [Footnote ref 1]. Upadana is an advanced t@r@s@na leading to positive clinging [Footnote ref 2]. It is

produced by t@r@s@na (desire) which again is the result of vedana (pleasure and pain). But this vedana is of course vedana with ignorance (_avidya_), for an Arhat may have also vedana but as he has no avidya, the vedana cannot produce t@r@s@na in turn. On its development it immediately passes into upadana. Vedana means pleasurable, painful or indifferent feeling. On the one side it leads to t@r@s@na (desire) and on the other it is produced by sense-contact (_spars'a_). Prof. De la Vallee Poussin says that S'rilabha distinguishes three processes in the production of vedana. Thus first there is the contact between the sense and the object; then there is the knowledge of the object, and then there is the vedana. Depending on _Majjhima Nikaya_, iii. 242, Poussin gives the other opinion that just as in the case of two sticks heat takes place simultaneously with rubbing, so here also vedana takes place simultaneously with spars'a for they are "produits par un meme complexe de causes (_samagri_) [Footnote ref 3]."

Spars'a is produced by @sa@dayatana, @sa@dayatana by namarupa, and namarupa by vijnana, and is said to descend in the womb of the mother and produce the five skandhas as namarupa, out of which the six senses are specialized.

Vijnana in this connection probably means the principle or germ of consciousness in the womb of the mother upholding the five elements of the new body there. It is the product of the past karmas (_sa@nkhara_) of the dying man and of his past consciousness too.

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