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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

Moha and these together are called kilesa


style="text-align: justify;">[Footnote 1: Warren's _Buddhism in Translations_ (_Visuddhimagga_, chap. XVII.), p. 175.]

[Footnote 2: _M. N._ I.p. 54. Childers translates "asava" as "depravities" and Mrs Rhys Davids as "intoxicants." The word "asava" in Skr. means "old wine." It is derived from "su" to produce by Buddhagho@sa and the meaning that he gives to it is "_cira parivasika@t@thena_" (on account of its being stored up for a long time like wine). They work through the eye and the mind and continue to produce all beings up to Indra. As those wines which are kept long are called "asavas" so these are also called asavas for remaining a long time. The other alternative that Buddhagho@sa gives is that they are called asava on account of their producing sa@msaradukkha (sorrows of the world), _Atthasalini_, p. 48. Contrast it with Jaina asrava (flowing in of karma matter). Finding it difficult to translate it in one word after Buddhagho@sa, I have translated it as "depravities," after Childers.]

[Footnote 3: See _Dhammasa@nga@ni_, p. 195.]

[Footnote 4: Buddhagho@sa's _Atthasalini_, p. 371.]


The di@t@thasavas by clouding the mind with false metaphysical views stand in the way of one's adopting the true Buddhistic doctrines. The kamasavas stand in the way of one's entering into the way of Nirva@na (_anagamimagga_)

and the bhavasavas and avijjasavas stand in the way of one's attaining arha or final emancipation. When the _Majjhima Nikaya_ says that from the rise of the asavas avijja rises, it evidently counts avijja there as in some sense separate from the other asavas, such as those of attachment and desire of existence which veil the true knowledge about sorrow.

The afflictions (_kilesas_) do not differ much from the asavas for they are but the specific passions in forms ordinarily familiar to us, such as covetousness (_lobha_), anger or hatred (_dosa_), infatuation (_moha_), arrogance, pride or vanity (_mana_), heresy (_di@t@thi_), doubt or uncertainty (_vicikiccha_), idleness (_thina_), boastfulness (_udhacca_), shamelessness (_ahirika_) and hardness of heart _anottapa_); these kilesas proceed directly as a result of the asavas. In spite of these varieties they are often counted as three (lobha, dosa, moha) and these together are called kilesa. They are associated with the vedanakkhandha, sannakkhandha, sa@nkharakkhandha and vinnanakkhandha. From these arise the three kinds of actions, of speech, of body, and of mind [Footnote ref 1].

Sila and Samadhi.

We are intertwined all through outside and inside by the tangles of desire (_ta@nha ja@ta_), and the only way by which these may be loosened is by the practice of right discipline (_sila_), concentration (_samadhi_) and wisdom (_panna_). Sila briefly means the desisting from committing all sinful deeds (_sabbapapassa akara@nam_). With sila therefore the first start has to be made, for by it one ceases to do all actions prompted by bad desires and thereby removes the inrush of dangers and disturbances. This serves to remove the kilesas, and therefore the proper performance of the sila would lead one to the first two successive stages of sainthood, viz. the sotapannabhava (the stage in which one is put in the right current) and the sakadagamibhava (the stage when one has only one more birth to undergo). Samadhi is a more advanced effort, for by it all the old roots of the old kilesas are destroyed and the ta@nha or desire is removed and

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